By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu
When Mustafa Kemal Atatürk grew to become the 1st president of Turkey in 1923, he set approximately remodeling his state right into a secular republic the place nationalism sanctified by means of science--and through the character cult Atatürk created round himself--would reign ultimate because the new faith. This booklet offers the 1st in-depth examine the highbrow lifetime of the Turkish Republic's founder. In doing so, it frames him in the historic context of the turbulent age within which he lived, and explores the uneasy transition from the overdue Ottoman imperial order to the trendy Turkish kingdom via his existence and ideas.
laying off gentle on some of the most advanced and enigmatic statesmen of the fashionable period, M. Sükrü Hanioglu takes readers from Atatürk's early life as a Muslim boy within the risky ethnic cauldron of Macedonia, to his schooling in nonreligious and armed forces colleges, to his embody of Turkish nationalism and the modernizing younger Turks circulate. Who used to be this determine who sought glory as an formidable younger officer in global conflict I, defied the positive Allies purpose on partitioning the Turkish heartland, and defeated the final sultan? Hanioglu charts Atatürk's highbrow and ideological improvement at each degree of his existence, demonstrating how he was once profoundly stimulated via the hot principles that have been circulating within the sprawling Ottoman realm. He exhibits how Atatürk drew on a distinct mixture of scientism, materialism, social Darwinism, positivism, and different theories to style a grand utopian framework on which to construct his new nation.
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Additional resources for Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography
As members of a privileged group, the officers viewed themselves as being above the rest of society, which it was their natural right to lead. Like other members of the Ottoman intellectual elite at this time, and many military men since, they were profoundly attracted to Gustave Le Bon’s notions of crowd psychology, in which the military held pride of place as an indispensable part of the ruling elite. They did not aim to empower disenfranchised social elements to overthrow the established order; on the contrary, they sought to strengthen the existing order the better to exercise their leadership over the feckless masses.
There she could live under the protection of her step-uncle, Langazalı Hüseyin Ağa, who was a steward at a sizable Muslim farm. The move from the comforts of middle-class life in the city to near “Hayatına Ait Hatıralar, January 1922,” in Atatürk᾽ün Söylev ve Demeçleri Tamim ve Telgrafları, vol. 5, ed. Sadi Borak and Utkan Kocatürk (Ankara: Türk İnkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Yayınları, 1972), 84. 27 Marc David Baer, The Dönme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries, and Secular Turks (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010), 48–49.
The school in Monastir, established in 1847, took in an average of 75 students per year from a province with a sizable Muslim population of approximately 225,000. Admission was extremely difficult because of competition among the many children of officers and bureaucrats serving in the province. In 1899, at age eighteen, Mustafa Kemal graduated from this high school with flying colors. 3 1 Mehmed Es῾ad, Mir᾽at-ı Mekteb-i Harbiye (Istanbul: Artin Asadoryan, 1310 [1892–93]), 166–67. 2 Ibid. 3 Şerafettin Turan, Kendine Özgü Bir Yaşam ve Kişilik: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (Istanbul: Bilgi Yayınevi, 2004), 44.