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By Vivienne J. Gray

Xenophon's many and sundry works signify a massive resource of data concerning the old Greek global: for instance, approximately tradition, politics, social lifestyles and historical past within the fourth century BC, Socrates, horses and looking with canines, the Athenian financial system, and Sparta. besides the fact that, there was controversy approximately how his works will be learn. this feature of vital smooth serious essays will introduce readers to the wide variety of his writing, the debates it has encouraged, and the interpretative methodologies which have been used. A in particular written advent by means of Vivienne J. grey bargains a survey of Xenophon's works, an account of his lifestyles with admire to them, a short dialogue of contemporary readings, connection with smooth scholarship because the unique booklet of the articles, and a serious precis in their content material. numerous articles were translated for the 1st time from French and German, and all quotations were translated into English.

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Another woman who appears in a similar role is the Armenian’s wife, who approaches Cyrus before he departs from Armenia (Cyrop.

Although tragic poets had portrayed the degradation of captive women who were compelled to sleep with victors who had destroyed their cities and families, Xenophon is the Wrst to state, as a general principle, that slave women were reluctant to have intercourse with their masters, and to note that some men might prefer not to rape such women. Finally, Xenophon’s views on slaves are consistent with his ideas about women and non-Greeks. In the Oeconomicus, there is no natural hierarchy among human beings according to gender, race, or class.

Whereas the Socratic works are more favourable, and Ischomachus/Xenophon even ‘envisions the possibility that, in her own sphere of course, woman may be or become the superior of man’, in the non-Socratic works ‘women are ordinarily inferior to men, are regarded as male possessions to be bandied about without reference to their own wishes’. , 235). Cartledge (1993) 5–14 deals with Xenophon’s literary constructions of women as illuminating (and to some extent challenging) the stereotypical male–female polarity of Greek thought.

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