By Cliff C. Goddard;Anna A. Wierzbicka
In a sequence of cross-cultural investigations of notice that means, Cliff Goddard and Anna Wierzbicka learn key expressions from diversified domain names of the lexicon - concrete, summary, actual, sensory, emotional, and social. They specialize in advanced and culturally very important phrases in quite a number languages that comes with English, Russian, Polish, French, Warlpiri and Malay. a few are easy like men, women, and children or summary nouns like trauma and violence; others describe features reminiscent of hot, hard, and rough, feelings like happiness and sadness, or emotions like ache. This interesting booklet is for everybody attracted to the family among that means, tradition, principles, and phrases. They floor their discussions in actual examples from diversified cultures and draw on paintings starting from Leibniz, Locke, and Bentham, to renowned works resembling autobiographies and memoirs, and the Dalai Lama on happiness.
The e-book opens with a evaluation of the overlooked prestige of lexical semantics in linguistics. The authors think of quite a number analytical concerns together with lexical polysemy, semantic switch, the connection among lexical and grammatical semantics, and the suggestions of semantic molecules and templates. Their interesting publication is for everybody attracted to the relatives among that means, tradition, rules, and phrases.
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Additional info for Words and Meanings: Lexical Semantics Across Domains, Languages, and Cultures
E. as tjitji iti (Goddard 1996b). Comparable constructions are found in many Australian languages. 9 Men, women, and children 35 say that someone ‘can do some things, very few things’. That is, the messages conveyed by ‘some’ and ‘very few’ are compatible: the relationship is one of ampliﬁcation. e. between ‘small’ and ‘very small’; and between ‘bad things’ and ‘very bad things’. Before leaving babies, it is worth noting that the concept embodied in this English word is a language-speciﬁc one. Many languages have no comparable lexical item.
Starting from ‘man’ as a potential “begetter”? The prospect of multiple equally plausible analyses haunted classical feature analysis (Bolinger 1965; Burling 1969), but the NSM approach avoids this prospect by requiring that explications be both non-circular and conceptually plausible. To start with ‘man’ as a “potential begetter” would require spelling out the basics of sexual reproduction; roughly, that someone of one kind can do something with part of his body to the body of someone else of the other kind, with the result that inside the body of this other someone, there can be something which is like a part of that someone’s body, and which afterwards can be the body of another someone.
Violating the principle of indigenization can legitimately be described as “terminological ethnocentrism”. Like ethnocentrism in general, it involves imposing alien cultural categories upon people of other languages and cultures, with an inevitably distorting effect. A third advantage of basing the metalanguage of semantic description as transparently as possible on natural language is methodological. As pointed out by Ruth Kempson (1977), among others, to test and revise hypotheses about meanings depends on our being able to generate predictions about ordinary language use on the basis of the semantic description.