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By Ingo Plag

Offering an available creation to the learn of word-formation, this article focuses particularly on English. Assuming no previous linguistic wisdom, Ingo Plag explains the basics of word-formation, demonstrating how morphemes--the components of a word's inner structure--can functionality to narrate phrases to different phrases, and to create new phrases. scholars are inspired to adopt their very own morphological research of English phrases, and are brought to the methodological instruments for acquiring and examining proper facts.

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Use the italicized words in the following examples to show the differences between these notions: a. b. c. Franky walked to Hollywood every morning. You’ll never walk alone. Patricia had a new walking stick. 4 Consider the following sentence: Textbook writers are sometimes grateful for comments and scholarly advice. a. List all morphemes in this sentence. How many morphemes can you detect? List all complex words and state for each of them which type of morphological process (inflection, derivation, or compounding) it is an example of.

The third allomorph occurs if nothing follows. e. determines which allomorph has to be used in a given linguistic context. This is called phonological 28 2 Studying complex words conditioning. We will shortly see that there are also other kinds of conditioning factors involved in allomorphy. Allomorphy is also rather frequent in English derivation, and both bases and affixes can be affected by it. Consider first a few cases of base allomorphy and try to determine how many allomorphs the lexemes explain, maintain, c ourage have: (10) explain explanation explanatory maintain maintenance courage courageous To make things more transparent, let us look at the actual pronunciations, given in phonetic transcription in (11) below.

1) The morpheme un- [ n] morph ‘not’ meaning The pairing of certain sounds with certain meanings is essentially arbitrary. That the sound sequence [ n] stands for the meaning ‘not’ is a pure convention of English, and in a different language (and speech community) the same string of sounds may represent another meaning or no meaning at all. In complex words at least one morpheme is combined with another morpheme. This creates a derived word, a new complex sign, which stands for the combined meaning of the two morphemes involved.

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