By Dr Erik Goldstein, Erik Goldstein
This significant e-book offers the main accomplished consultant on hand to 19th and 20th century wars and their payment. Erik Goldstein covers all points of over 100 wars.
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Extra resources for Wars and Peace Treaties 1816-Present
An agreement with Romania (16 April 1877), still technically under Ottoman suzerainty, allowed Russian troops transit across that country. Russia then declared war (24 April), and Romania declared its independence (21 May). Romania was not at first asked to join in the war, but as Russian reverses developed it was invited to participate. Serbia joined the Russians after the fall of Plevna (Dec. 1877) had assured a Russian victory. Montenegro, which was already at war with the Ottomans, likewise joined the Russian effort.
Montenegro’s independence was again recognized by the Ottomans and it acquired its long-sought aims of Spizza, Nikshich, Podgoritsa and Zhablyak, which tripled its size. The independence of Romania and Serbia was recognized, and a vast autonomous Decline of the Ottoman Empire 31 Bulgaria was created, including Macedonia and an Aegean seaport. A large indemnity was also levied on the Ottomans. The other Great Powers were alarmed at this great extension of Russian power, with Bulgaria being perceived as a virtual Russian satellite.
This engagement saw an allied victory, although the Austrians withdrew in good order and casualties were high on both sides (22,000 Austrians and 18,000 allied). Franz Joseph now sought a negotiated settlement. The French emperor was doubtful of his ability to crack the Austrian Quadrilateral, concerned about the possibility of Prussian support for Austria and worried about the implications of a powerful new north Italian kingdom. As a result of these concerns Napoleon III agreed to Franz Joseph’s request and offered moderate terms, with an armistice being agreed at Villafranca (11 July 1859).