By Carlos Samitier
This CIGRE eco-friendly booklet starts off by means of addressing the specification and provision of conversation prone within the context of operational purposes for electricity utilities, ahead of hence supplying instructions at the deployment or transformation of networks to bring those particular conversation prone. finally, it demonstrates how those networks and their companies may be monitored, operated, and maintained to make sure that the considered necessary excessive point of carrier caliber is constantly achieved.
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Extra resources for Utility Communication Networks and Services: Specification, Deployment and Operation
Moreover, considering the frequency of occurrence for this delay estimation, the communication medium must have a fairly stable propagation delay. Modern protection systems can receive an external time reference such as a GPS clock to provide global time-stamping of samples, enabling them to tolerate switched networks. Once the system is synchronized, loss of GPS can be tolerated on a switched communication network using various techniques provided that the communication path does not change too often.
In this case, a logic controller in one substation initiates actions across a subsystem. Reliability at the decision substation is a major design issue in this case. The decision and corrective action need secure reliable and prompt communication channels to collect remote information and to initiate actions. • For more system-wide applications, the decision process can be totally or partially performed at a Control Center, and can initiate multilevel corrective actions. These systems are generally less time-sensitive automation applications covering stability issues in larger networks over one or multiple grids, and comprising multiple balancing authority areas.
The signaling channel is only keyed for faults within the protected line giving the scheme a high degree of security. If the signaling channel fails, basic distance scheme tripping will still be available. Assuming that the Zone 1 is set to 80 % of the protected line, the faults in the remote 20 % of the line will be cleared via the Zone 2 time delay of the local relay if the remote terminal of the line is open. 18 3 Substation-to-Substation Applications ZOR Z OR Rx ZUR Z UR t OR 1 & t UR Tx Tx Z UR Z UR t UR Rx & Z OR t OR Z OR 1 ZOR : OverReach fault detect ZUR : UnderReach fault detect tOR , tUR : OverReach/UnderReach zone timer Fig.