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By H. Kösebalaban

This e-book explores how Turkey's contested nationwide id has affected its international policysince the past due Ottoman period. The e-book takes a constructivist method, announcing that identification issues for overseas coverage judgements, however it separates itself from statist ways by means of bringing identification query into household politics.

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Extra info for Turkish Foreign Policy: Islam, Nationalism, and Globalization

Example text

Islamism or the unity of Muslims (ittihad-ı Islam) emerged as a reaction to the failure to convince Ottoman non-Muslim communities to remain loyal to the empire. When the Ottomanist solution did not work, Muslim intellectuals, including some Ottomanists, began to voice a discourse of Islamism as a way of finding a common ground, now among remaining Muslim subjects of the empire. Turkish nationalism developed partly as a secular translation of Islamism and partly as a reaction to the failure of the Islamic ideal of unity.

In 1838, medical schools were reorganized as Dar-ül Ulum-u Hikemiye-i Osmaniye ve Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Sahane ¸ (the Imperial School of Physical and Medical Sciences). For this project European medical academics were invited by the Ottoman government to create an institution modeled after European medical schools. The Ottoman medical schools became major training centers for positivist Ottoman intellectuals, who initiated the Young Turk revolution. As it was also the case in many other places, in the history of Ottoman modernization, military and medical schools played a crucial role as it was in these fields that the superiority of the West compared to their own country was most visible to the eyes of young students.

Each of these discourses emerged in response to a previous one in the order in which they are listed. They were also very much influenced by each other. Ottomanism, or the idea of Ottoman patriotism, was expressed in Islamic terminology, and Turkism even in its most secular expressions was never formulated in contradiction to Islam. 1 Ottoman Islamism, on the other hand, was an ideology of modernization aiming to achieve power, and rather than subscribing to the universality of Islam, it had a strong sense of Ottoman centrality boosted by the claim of Caliphate as resting in the Ottoman sultan.

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