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By Ahmet Evin, Geoffrey R. Denton

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42 He argued at length that the first of those three ways had indeed been tried by the Ottoman governments of the nineteenth century and failed. 45 Akçura suggested that the only beneficial road to take is to establish the unity of all Turks around the globe under a single political union. 47 It did not take long for the Ottomans to develop their own brand of panTurkism. 51 He had a colorful political career as well. He functioned as a member of the executive board of the main political organization and later party of the young Turks, the party of Union and Progress (ITF), and was behind many social and political reforms that ITF carried out between 1912 and 1918.

Some of the more perceptive officers who took part in the war arrived at the conclusion that the main reason why the Ottoman armies lost the war was not their lack of training, or lack of resources, logistics, and other capabilities. 93 The command and coherence of the army collapsed under the pressures of war, and the defeat followed immediately after. 95 World War I that followed immediately after the Balkan Wars further solidified and deepened the animosities of the confessional and ethnic communities, which simply persisted during the Turkish War of Liberation and beyond.

However, Islamism remained in the glossary of the political culture to be appealed to by various governments throughout the twentieth century, and even as late as the 1980s and the 1990s. Consequently, a relatively modern form of despotism combined with technological modernization, political traditionalism, which heavily emphasized and reinforced Islamism emerged under the reign of Abdülhamit II. From Coll apse to Liberation 17 However, in spite of all the censorship of the press (sansür), spying (hafiyelik), informing suspects (jurnalcilik), and suppression of political opponents, the opposition to the Hamidian regime eventually gathered steam.

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