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By M. Sukru Hanioglu

In 1908, the revolution of the younger Turks deposed the dictatorship of Sultan Abdulhamid II and verified a constitutional regime that grew to become the main ruling strength within the Ottoman empire. however the seeds of this revolution went again a lot farther: to 1889, whilst the key younger Turk association the Committee of Union and development was once shaped. M. Sukru Hanioglu's landmark paintings is the tale of the ability struggles in the CUP and its effect on twentieth-century Turkish politics and tradition. instantly an in-depth heritage of an ideological move and a examine of the diplomatic relationships among the Ottoman Empire and the so-called nice powers of Europe on the flip of the century, it analyzes the impact of ecu political suggestion at the CUP conspirators, and strains their effect on generations of Turkish highbrow and political existence.

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168 Le Bon was indeed the fourth materialist icon of the Young Turks. "175 He again underscored the value of an "intellectual aristocracy": According to a recent philosopher, progress is always achieved by an (intellectual aristocracy). . The British philosopher Sftuart] Mill is adamant about this fact, and he is prominent among those who advocate this. 177 Bureaucracy Challenged: Loyalty versus Merit A potent feature of the Young Turk program was the aspiration to replace the sultan's neopatrimonial administrative system with a modern bureaucracy.

The court record also shows that while in Istanbul, Scalieri had maintained contact with a certain Ahmed Es'ad, a colonel who had once overseen the publication of the journal Tesvik (Encouragement) in Greece. 15 His work bore no fruit, however, and he died in 1891. Subsequently other Masonic groups tried their hand at Ottoman politics; and some of them shared Scalieri's aspirations. 17 The Freemasons were singled out for repression when Abdiilhamid II got wind of their efforts in Europe on behalf of Murad V.

For reasons unknown, La Turquie Libre ceased publication soon afterward. Late in 1893, on the heels of the demise of La Turquie Libre, a curious pamphlet appeared. 37 In each case the term Young Turk referred to the political wing of the Freemasons. 38 In tandem with these events, a number of declarations were issued by Le Comite Liberal Ottoman. " Two years later, on November 25, 1895, in the midst of political turmoil and unrest in Istanbul, a declaration was posted throughout the capital. 43 Until about 1895, Masonic lodges operated in a largely clandestine fashion, avoiding any direct link with Young Turk groups.

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