Download The World’s Urban Forests: History, Composition, Design, by Joe R. McBride PDF

By Joe R. McBride

The function of this booklet is to ascertain city forests in towns world wide. it is going to ask questions about the historical past, composition, constitution, and administration of timber in city components. facts for this e-book used to be accrued in 33 towns throughout wide geographical components referred to as biomes. Constraints and possibilities imposed on city wooded area composition, layout, and administration through the ecological features of those biomes can be tested. The publication also will deal with the cultural and old elements that motivated the features of city forests round the world.

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Extra resources for The World’s Urban Forests: History, Composition, Design, Function and Management

Sample text

It also provides a context for future design and management of trees in urban areas. Early Human Settlements The capacity of people to modify local landscapes was initially very limited by technology and population size. The mastery of fire in Paleolithic times provided a technology for changing vegetation. Fire could be used to burn away unwanted plants at local sites were settlements were to be established. Fire is still used today by indigenous people in northern Australia to eliminate grass and herbs from locations chosen for campsites (Nicholson 1981).

The capacity to accumulate and store food allowed people to live in permanent communities. The ancient Chinese village of Pan-po-Ts’un (Fig. 8), near the present city of Xian, built about 5000 BC consisted of 41 pit houses and 300 below ground storage pits (Chang 1986). These early communities were initially supported by agriculture and fishing, but trading of commodities soon allowed people to live in cities along trade routes once technologies for food storage had been developed. Fig. 8 Ancient Chinese village of Pan-po-Ts’un 22 3 Biomes, Human Settlement, and the Selection of Cities Various explanations have been advanced to explain the further evolution of cities once technologies for the production and storage of surplus food been realized.

The typical estate was comprised of about 1000 acres of land that would have been divided into about 300 farms. The estates were run by vassals who owed tribute and military service to regional lords. The peasants who farmed the land were typically required to give half of their crops to the vassal and were not allowed to leave the estates on which they worked. The vassal provided security for the peasants to protect them from marauders. Castles evolved as a means of providing protection to local populations and secure housing for the local vassal.

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