By Michael K. Kellogg
This attractive survey of significant works from past due antiquity to the start of the Renaissance finds the intensity of concept and the variety of expression that characterised the center a long time. Michael Kellogg demonstrates that medieval proposal owes way more to historical philosophy than is mostly intended; that poets of this period have been as refined and nuanced as their historical opposite numbers; and that writers of this time expected lots of the traces of inquiry that gave upward push to the Renaissance.
The writer examines philosophical treatises, memoirs, letters, stories, romances, and epics, documenting the original array of evolving issues that drove the medieval look for knowledge. one of the authors and works mentioned are Augustine's Confessions; Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy; Beowulf; the writings of Abelard and Heloise, Francis of Assisi, and Thomas Aquinas; the Song of Roland; the Arthurian romances of Chrétien de Troyes; Dante's Divine...
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Muhammad was born in Mecca around 570. He had a modest education and worked as a caravan manager for, and later married, a wealthy widow. Muhammad suffered from epilepsy, and during his fits the archangel Gabriel revealed to him the teachings of Allah, which were recorded by his followers in the Qur'an. Muhammad claimed no divine status for himself. Allah was the one and only God, and all had to submit to his will. ” In exchange for leading an ethical life, observing the five “pillars” of Islam,14 and propagating his faith, the pious Muslim is promised eternal happiness.
He sought to reconquer North Africa from the Vandals, Italy from the Ostrogoths, and Spain from the Visigoths. These decades-long efforts are recorded and celebrated by Procopius in his highly regarded History of the Wars. Yet Procopius also wrote The Secret History, which tells a very different story and paints a radically different portrait of his patron, Justinian. ”10 The work, with its excessive vitriol and questionable allegations, has forever damaged Procopius's reputation as a historian even as it has delighted readers.
Slavs from the north poured into Greece and the Balkans. The eastern empire was further weakened in 542 by the bubonic plague, which killed one-third of the population of Constantinople. Justinian could not exercise effective control over the far-flung holdings in the west. Indeed, he barely held on to the eastern empire. In the end, Justinian succeeded only in destroying the remnants of order in the west and thus paved the way for later conquests by Muslims in North Africa and Spain and the fierce Lombards in Italy.