By Vitaly L. Ginzburg
Every reader drawn to figuring out the real difficulties in physics and astrophysics and their historical improvement over the last 60 years will get pleasure from this publication immensely. The philosophy, background and the person perspectives of recognized scientists of the twentieth century recognized in my view to the writer, make this e-book interesting for non-physicists, too. The publication involves 3 components on (I) significant difficulties of physics and astrophyics, (II) the philosophy and background of technology and (III) memorial essays on well-known physicists. the writer is an the world over well known scientist, who summarises right here his life-long experience.
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Extra info for The Physics of a Lifetime: Reflections on the Problems and Personalities of 20th Century Physics
Only a small number of low-capacity helium liquefiers were operating throughout the world. Since the most important application of superconductivity is for operating superconducting magnetic systems, another constraint on the use of them was the low values of He and Ie for the materials available at the time (for mercury the critical field is about 400 Oe even at temperatures tending to zero). In early 1960s things changed radically. Liquid helium is now readily available, and laboratories now do not use liquefiers of their own but order liquid helium from commercial companies producing it.
Successful results can be produced in fundamentally different ways, apparently. 4 K) or, even better, at room temperature. I have discussed the current status of high-temperature superconductivity research elsewhere . Therefore, I shall limit the discussion to a few remarks, especially as nothing dramatic has happened in the field in recent years (with the exception of some developments noted at the end of the section). Superconductivity occurs in metals when electrons in the vicinity of the Fermi surface are attracted to each other, thus producing pairs, which undergo something like a Bose-Einstein condensation.
The suggestion that 'pairs' of two 3He atoms possessing an integral spin can be produced in liquid 3He (as happens in superconductors) has been discussed for quite some time. Generation of pairs with an integral spin and their subsequent Bose-Einstein condensation must give rise to superfluidity similarly to superconductivity (it is known that superconductivity may be treated as superfluidity of the charged electron liquid in metals or of the proton liquid in neutron stars). For some time no reliable theoretical estimates could be obtained for the temperature of the superfluid transition, while the experimental results proved to be quite unexpected.