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By Ahmad Feroz

Turkey is the 1st glossy secular country in a predominantly Islamic heart East. during this significant textbook, Feroz Ahmad offers an intensive exam of the political, social and financial approaches which ended in the formation of a brand new Turkey. After a bankruptcy on "the Ottoman Legacy", the ebook covers the interval because the revolution of 1908 and the advance of the recent Turkey. Successive chapters chart the development during the single-party regime manage by way of Ataturk (1923-1945), the multi-party interval (1945-1960) and the 3 army interventions of 1960, 1971 and 1980. The booklet results in 1989 with the election of Turgat Ozal as president. unlike most present analyses of recent Turkey, the writer emphasises the socio-economic adjustments instead of continuities because the motor of politics.

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The defeat of the Mamluks of Syria and Egypt enhanced the sultan’s religious authority and legitimacy. He acquired the symbols of the Caliphate, which had been brought to Cairo after the sack of Baghdad in 1258, and became the controller of the Holy Places. The sultans were not simple conquerors who were satisfied with pillaging the lands they subdued. They recognised the importance of commerce and agriculture for their imperial power. This they demonstrated by the laws they passed to encourage economic activity and many of their conquests were motivated by economic and strategic considerations.

A society which had been closed to the outside was suddenly thrown open, at least in cities and towns. Censorship was lifted and newspapers and magazines, representing all the communities of the empire and a wide assortment of opinions, flooded the market to satisfy the curiosity of an eager public. There were popular demonstrations in support of the new regime organised by the leaders of the principal religious and ethnic communities— Muslim, Greek, Armenian, and Jewish—as well as by the various factions of the Young Turks.

Some important, charismatic figures like the dashing Enver Bey, who became war minister in 1914 and played a dramatic role throughout this period, were already being sent away into gilded exile as military attachés to embassies abroad. The Committee therefore resolved to meet Kâmil’s challenge. On 13 February, he was summoned by the assembly to explain his cabinet appointments. 2 The vote had been dramatic: only eight deputies supported Kâmil while 198 had cast their vote against him. 36 The making of modern Turkey The Liberals interpreted the fall of Kâmil Pasha as a major setback and the British Embassy as a severe blow to Britain’s prestige.

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