By Shmuel Safrai
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Extra resources for The Literature of the Sages, Part One: Oral Torah, Halakha, Mishna, Tosefta, Talmud, External Tractates (Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum Ad Novum Testamentum)
Ant. 13:408-409; the hostile tone of the description may be attributed to Nicolaus. For relations between Yannai and the Pharisees cf. Schurer, History 1,223-5 and n. 22 for possible references in the Dead Sea Scrolls. 57 58 59 9 THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND while frequently operating within traditional frameworks. Shimon ben Shatah seems to have been particularly active in establishing ordinances touching on major social issues, while at the same time seeking to avoid the wrath of the Hasmonean king.
E . under Julian. Having assumed an anti-Christian stance and wishing to undermine Christian theology, the emperor proposed rebuilding the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. The affair ended as abruptly as it began, with Julian's death coming during his campaign against Persia in 363 C . E . There is no hard evidence of major Jewish elation upon hearing of the plan, inasmuch as years of Roman rule - and a succession of failed rebellions - had taught the Jewish community to desist from building hopes on major shifts of policy embraced by lone individuals.
Later generations would claim that Hillel already assumed an official position of Nasi (Patriarch). That such an office even existed in Second Temple times is questionable, and even more so given the limited powers delegated by Herod to anyone - let alone a rabbinic Sage spiritually close to those who refused to take an oath of alle giance. Nevertheless, we are witness to an impressive list of disputes between 63 64 65 66 60 Gen. R. 91,3 (p. 1115); P. T. Ber. 7,11b ( = P. T. Naz. 5,54b); B. T.