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By D R R Williams; et al

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The role of non-genetic effects in producing type 2 diabetes should not be underestimated. Undoubtedly, dietary factors and physical inactivity play a role16. There is increasing realisation that they will interact with particular genotypes. Thus we have recently demonstrated an interaction between dietary fat type and the common PPAR␥ polymorphism with the beneficial effects of a high unsaturated/saturated fat intake in terms of adiposity and fasting insulin being confined to those with the PPAR␥ Ala12 genotype17.

Clin. Pract. 36: 91-104. 53. Poirier JY, Le Prieur N, Campion L, Guilhem I, Allannic H, Maugendre D (1998) Clinical and statistical evaluation of self-monitoring blood glucose meters. Diabetes Care 21: 1919–24. 54. Kanan W, Bijlani RL, Sachdeva U, Mahapatra SC, Shah P, Karmarkar MG (1998) Glycaemic and isulinaemic responses to natural foods, frozen foods and their laboratory equivalents. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 42: 81–89 55. Sermer M, Maylor CD, Gare DJ, Kenshole AB, Ritchie JW, Farine D, Cohen HR, McArthur K, Holzapfel S, Biringer A (1994) Impact of time since last meal on the gestational glucose challenge test.

Linomide. Linomide (quinoline-3-carboxamide) is a synthetic immunomodulator which results in complete protection from insulitis and diabetes in NOD mice96. The effects of linomide on insulin needs and ß-cell function were evaluated in a one-year study in 63 subjects (randomized 2:1 linomide and placebo) with recent onset diabetes97. In the linomide group, both insulin dose and HbA1c were lower, and there was a trend for higher C-peptide values. In a post-hoc sub-group analysis performed in 40 patients (25 from the linomide group and 15 from the placebo group) who still had detectable residual ß-cell function at entry, linomide was associated with higher C-peptide values.

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