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By Niyazi Berkes

First released in 1964, this can be the most vital books written on glossy Turkey. lengthy unavailable within the English language, this variation brings new existence to the influential rules and research of Niyazi Berkes. interpreting Turkey's transformation towards a mundane kingdom, it strains the advanced courting among technical and fiscal adjustments, in addition to the political and non secular.

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To call this a softening would be erroneous because one could argue readily that the attitude towards the European became more unfriendly from this period onward and that the relations between Turks and Europeans became increasingly bitter, especially as the latter became more widely identified as a factor of change in social life, or of economic impoverishment. The point that should be noticed here is that the European began to gain importance in the eyes not only of government officials, but also of the people.

P. 169. • , IV, No. 20 (June, 1913), 1282 ff. 43 De Bonncval appears to have been in communication with the cantons of Berne and Zurich in the latter regard. See Von Hammer, Histoire de l'Empirc, XV. 68. 44 Mchmed Subhi, Tarih (Istanbul, 1783), leaf 58. 45 Tayyarzade Ata, Tarib (Istanbul, x874), I, 158. Hendesenane mi~~t be translated as School of Mathematics, although School of Military Engineering is the more appropriate modern equivalent. On the school see AdiVar, Osmanlt Tiirklerinde llim, pp.

43 De Bonncval appears to have been in communication with the cantons of Berne and Zurich in the latter regard. See Von Hammer, Histoire de l'Empirc, XV. 68. 44 Mchmed Subhi, Tarih (Istanbul, 1783), leaf 58. 45 Tayyarzade Ata, Tarib (Istanbul, x874), I, 158. Hendesenane mi~~t be translated as School of Mathematics, although School of Military Engineering is the more appropriate modern equivalent. On the school see AdiVar, Osmanlt Tiirklerinde llim, pp. x6x-62; also Mchmed Esad, Mir'at-t Miibendisbane (Istanbul, 1896); E.

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