Download The Aral Sea Encyclopedia by Igor S. Zonn, M. Glantz, Aleksey N. Kosarev, Andrey G. PDF

By Igor S. Zonn, M. Glantz, Aleksey N. Kosarev, Andrey G. Kostianoy

The scenario of the Aral Sea is named one of many worst man-made environmental crises of the 20 th and twenty-first centuries. Many have visible the satellite tv for pc pictures evidencing the startling shrinkage and deterioration of the ocean, because it used to be a number of a long time in the past and the way it seems that this day. while the Aral Sea used to be the world’s fourth-largest inland physique of water in 1960, it has now reduced in size to a small fraction of that inside 3 more and more saline and polluted components, basically a result of diversion of waters for agricultural irrigation. The Aral Sea Encyclopedia is dedicated to the striking phenomenon of the potential of Aral Sea’s forthcoming disappearance from the Earth within the time span of a unmarried human iteration.

It first describes the ocean ahead of it begun drying-out, after which the activities and efforts of the relevant Asian international locations, in addition to the overseas neighborhood, to mitigate the socioeconomic and environmental risks brought on by this desiccation and lengthening salinity. This entire reference not just addresses the foremost environmental matters and provides nationwide and foreign courses. It additionally files the background of the similar learn stories, the involvement of admired ancient figures, and the chronology of occasions over 3 centuries, which grew to become the milestones within the fiscal improvement of the Aral Sea and its next diminution.

The book of the Aral Sea Encyclopedia initiates a bunch of comparable helpful references that assemble multi-disciplinary views at the world's seas, together with deliberate volumes at the Caspian and Black Seas and the ocean of Japan.

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Over the sea, the air temperature is 3–5 degrees lower than in the nearby land areas. The Aral water is warmed during spring and summer and cools in autumn and winter. The surface water temperature before strong dessication was rather uniform over the whole sea area and in summer it reached 23–258C. Due to intense winter cooling, the temperature of the surface water layers becomes lower, while underlying water layers became lower. At the maximal depths it was 2-48C. 3%. The annual dynamics of water salinity in the sea was rather weak.

In the coastal zone, the adult roach feeds on mollusks and vegetation, mollusks and freshwater shrimps offshore, and vegetation in rivers. In winter, they do not stop feeding. In spring and autumn, they make vertical migrations to catch shrimps that rise to the surface at night, while in the daytime they descend to the bottom. Most widespread in the Aral Sea and in the backwater pools and lakes of the Amudarya and Syrdarya. Aral salmon (Salmo trutta aralensis)* – migratory fish of the salmon (Salmonidae) family featuring an oblong head and jaws.

It was the best equipped port on the Aral Sea. This port was accessible for ships with a draft of 3 m. ’’ In the Soviet times, a fish-refrigerating plant, dockyards and ship-repair plants, oil plants, glass works, and others were built here. There was shipping traffic to the Amudarya lower reaches (wharf Muinak). In the past, port Aralsk had permanent shipping traffic with port Ushsai (see). Cargo-passenger vessels of the Central-Asian State Shipping Company (see) made regular voyages. From port Ushsai and from the commercial fishing establishments, fish, cans, and cotton were brought to Aralsk, from where timber, grain, fertilizers, industrial and food products were transported to port Ushsai.

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