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By Jean J. Gabszewicz

Imperfect festival is the paradigm that develops once monetary brokers have interaction in a unsleeping demeanour, that's the guideline while pageant occurs among a limited variety of brokers. This e-book explores the theoretical richness of those monetary contexts, utilizing a few easy instruments of online game conception. Designed as an ancillary textual content for graduate scholars, it summarizes the ancient contributions made by means of monetary theorists and makes available the various most up-to-date advancements within the related box.

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There exists a clear motivation, since cooperation entails 42 THE NUMBER OF AGENTS: ENTRY, BARRIERS TO ENTRY AND COLLUSION higher profits for both firms than at the non-cooperative equilibrium. Furthermore, sharing equally the monopoly profit provides a simple rule to select a particular cooperative equilibrium on the contract curve when both firms are identical. Nevertheless, there are several reasons why coordination among sellers, which is necessary to fix a collusive agreement and maintain it through time, does not obtain so easily.

31). Substituting the corresponding quantity into the marginal cost function of the BARRIERS TO ENTRY AND COMPETITION 35 monopolist, we see that the monopoly price exceeds the marginal cost of QM. Consequently, the optimality condition for allocative efficiency, which requires the equality of marginal cost and price, is not satisfied at the monopoly solution: the cost of increasing production by one unit is smaller than the utility derived by the consumer who would buy that unit at price pM. In the case of duopoly, the price pD is equal to and the marginal cost of the quantity produced by each duopolist is also equal to .

The definitions for competition on the buying side are ‘symmetric’ (for instance, the market is said to be perfectly competitive on the buying side when buyers are so numerous that their individual fraction of total demand is infinitesimal and cannot affect the price when modified). When this property is not satisfied, the door is opened to strategic competition among buyers, with monopsony, duopsony, or oligopsony, according to the number of buyers acting strategically. The definitions of the particular market structures corresponding to the various entries in the chart are self-evident.

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