By J. N. Adams
Languages express adaptations in keeping with the social classification of audio system and Latin used to be no exception, as readers of Petronius are conscious. The Romance languages have frequently been considered as constructing out of a 'language of the typical humans' (Vulgar Latin), yet experiences of recent languages reveal that linguistic switch doesn't only come, within the social experience, 'from below'. there's swap from above, as status usages paintings their approach down the social scale, and alter can also take place around the social periods. This ebook is a historical past of a number of the advancements passed through via the Latin language because it turned into Romance, demonstrating the various social degrees at which swap used to be initiated. approximately thirty subject matters are handled, a lot of them extra systematically than ever earlier than. Discussions usually begin within the early Republic with Plautus, and the booklet is as a lot in regards to the literary language as approximately casual forms.
Read or Download Social Variation and the Latin Language PDF
Best ancient & medieval literature books
S. J. Harrison units out to comic strip one resolution to a key query in Latin literary heritage: why did the interval c. 39-19 BC in Rome produce this sort of wealthy diversity of advanced poetical texts, certainly within the paintings of the recognized poets Vergil and Horace? Harrison argues that one relevant point of this literary flourishing was once the way diverse poetic genres or varieties (pastoral, epic, tragedy, and so forth.
The 1st entire examine of Roman verse satire to seem due to the fact 1976 offers a clean and intriguing survey of the sector. instead of describing satire's heritage as a chain of discrete achievements, it relates these achievements to each other in the sort of manner that, within the circulate from Lucilius, to Horace, to Persius, to Juvenal, we're made to experience, and notice played, the expanding strain of imperial oversight in old Rome.
THIS version HAS BEEN changed by way of a more recent version
This guide was once produced with the purpose of delivering scholars with an advent to outdated Irish literature in addition to to the language. one of many remarkable previous Irish tales is used because the simple textual content. Examples of poems, and of the glosses, complement it. All are completely annotated. The grammatical info supplied in those annotations is summarized in grammatical sections facing particular buildings and kinds.
- Greek Mathematical Works: Volume II, From Aristarchus to Pappus. (Loeb Classical Library No. 362)
- Middle Kingdom Studies
Additional info for Social Variation and the Latin Language
We offer some categories of evidence, along with comments on their reliability. (i) Grammarians and their pronouncements will occupy a prominent place in this book. They were not much interested in the speech of lower classes as such, though there are some exceptional texts such as Consentius’ Ars de barbarismis et metaplasmis, and scattered pronouncements on barbarisms and the like. Occasionally indeed stigmatised usages are linked to specific social groups. –): per immutationem fiunt barbarismi sic: litterae, ut si quis dicat bobis pro uobis, peres pro pedes, stetim pro statim, quod uitium plebem Romanam quadam deliciosa nouitatis affectione corrumpit (on this passage see Adams : ).
Vulgar’ is not a judgmental term here, but has its etymological sense, ‘of the vulgus, the common people’. An extreme view of the distinction between (Classical) Latin and Vulgar Latin has been called by Wright (: ) the ‘two-norm theory’. According to this Latin went on being spoken well into the medieval period by the educated, whereas the uneducated at the same time were speaking evolved vernaculars (see Wright : – for a collection of such opinions). Various questions are raised by such distinctions.
Stylistic variations themselves are not absolute, or, as Labov (: ) puts it, ‘all-or-none signals’. They form a continuum. Three other influences studied by Labov, ethnicity (see Labov : – ), sex (–) and age (–) (see particularly Labov : – on the intersection of sex, age and social class), must be mentioned here, though they will not be dealt with in this book (see now Clackson c: – on the evidence for variation in Latin related to sex and age, with bibliography).