By Svenja Völkel
This interdisciplinary examine investigates the connection among tradition, language and cognition in line with the points of social constitution, area and ownership in Tonga, Polynesia. Grounded on large box study, Völkel explores the topic from an anthropological in addition to from a linguistic standpoint. The ebook offers new insights into the language of appreciate, an honorific method that's deeply anchored within the societal hierarchy, spatial descriptions which are made up our minds via socio-cultural and geocentric parameters, kinship terminology and possessive different types that completely convey the process of social prestige inequalities between relations. those examples impressively convey that language is deeply anchored in its cultural context. in addition, the linguistic constructions replicate the underlying cognitive body of its audio system. simply as numerous cultural practices (sitting order, entry to land and reward alternate tactics) the linguistic capacity usually are not simply expressions of stratified social networks but additionally instruments to keep up or negotiate the underlying socio-cultural approach.
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Extra info for Social Structure, Space and Possession in Tongan Culture and Language: An ethnolinguistic study (Culture and Language Use)
Tongan has an honorific system, called language of respect, that distinguishes between three sociolinguistic language levels: one for the king, one for the chiefs and one for the commoners. These language levels are not based on grammatical but only on lexical distinctions. In Tongan, spatial descriptions are based on the use of spatial prepositions, directionals and spatial nouns. For linguistic (and cognitive) encoding, Tongan . e. a language which makes the major distinction rather between non-referential lexical ‘types’ which are neither tense- nor article- marked [–ref] and referential phrasal ‘tokens’ which are either tense- or article-marked [+ref].
Social structure distinction by adding ‘male/man’ or ‘female/woman’: kui tangata (lit. ‘male kui’) and kui fefine (lit. ‘female kui’). The kin of generations even further away from ego are simply referred to in the same way as those of the second ascending and descending generation. Besides these cases, there are no kin terms which include kin of different generations. The distinctive social features (such as sex and relative age) that are important in Tongan kinship terminology fit within Kroeber’s general pattern.
Duranti 1981; van der Grijp 1993: 21; Duranti 1994: 2). Chapter 1. 2 The village of Niutoua9 Niutoua is the easternmost village of the eastern district (hahake) of Tongatapu. The village is located at the sea, but in contrast to most other villages around the northern coast of Tongatapu, the reef gets very close to the coastline, and thus, the lagoon is rather small at this point. The village stretches around a main crossroad and its two roads, the Hala Tāufa‘ahau that links the village with Nuku‘alofa and most other villages in the Eastern district, and the Hala Liku leading around the south coast and ending at the beach of Niutoua.