By Jonathan Culler.
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Extra info for Sobre la Deconstruccion: Teoria y critica despues del Estructuralismo
There exists a clear motivation, since cooperation entails 42 THE NUMBER OF AGENTS: ENTRY, BARRIERS TO ENTRY AND COLLUSION higher proﬁts for both ﬁrms than at the non-cooperative equilibrium. Furthermore, sharing equally the monopoly proﬁt provides a simple rule to select a particular cooperative equilibrium on the contract curve when both ﬁrms are identical. Nevertheless, there are several reasons why coordination among sellers, which is necessary to ﬁx a collusive agreement and maintain it through time, does not obtain so easily.
31). Substituting the corresponding quantity into the marginal cost function of the BARRIERS TO ENTRY AND COMPETITION 35 monopolist, we see that the monopoly price exceeds the marginal cost of QM. Consequently, the optimality condition for allocative efﬁciency, which requires the equality of marginal cost and price, is not satisﬁed at the monopoly solution: the cost of increasing production by one unit is smaller than the utility derived by the consumer who would buy that unit at price pM. In the case of duopoly, the price pD is equal to and the marginal cost of the quantity produced by each duopolist is also equal to .
The deﬁnitions for competition on the buying side are ‘symmetric’ (for instance, the market is said to be perfectly competitive on the buying side when buyers are so numerous that their individual fraction of total demand is inﬁnitesimal and cannot affect the price when modiﬁed). When this property is not satisﬁed, the door is opened to strategic competition among buyers, with monopsony, duopsony, or oligopsony, according to the number of buyers acting strategically. The deﬁnitions of the particular market structures corresponding to the various entries in the chart are self-evident.