By Badih El-Kareh
Silicon units and technique Integration is compiled from commercial and educational lecture notes and displays years of expertise within the improvement of silicon units. it's ready particularly for engineers and scientists in semiconductor study, improvement and production. it's also compatible for a one-semester path in electric engineering and fabrics technological know-how on the top undergraduate or reduce graduate point. The ebook covers either the theoretical and sensible points of contemporary silicon units and the connection among their electric houses and processing conditions.
Topics coated contain: MOS constitution, parameter extraction - brief and narrow-channel results - CMOS mobility enhancement concepts - High-K gate dielectrics, complex gate stacks - Low-K dielectrics and Cu interconnects - Analog units and passive elements - CMOS and BiCMOS procedure integration - DRAM, SRAM and NVM telephone structures.
The publication covers state of the art silicon units and built-in technique applied sciences. It represents a entire dialogue of contemporary silicon units, their features, and interactions with strategy parameters.
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Extra resources for Silicon Devices and Process Integration: Deep Submicron and Nano-Scale Technologies
13) a= ∗. m Since the curvature of the E–k plot depends on the crystallographic orientation, the effective mass should be treated as a tensor. It can be seen from Figs. 12 that the curvature of the first valence band near k = 0 is smaller than that of the other two bands. Holes near that point have therefore a larger effective mass than holes created in V2 and V3 . ” The density of holes in V3 is negligible because of the large energy offset. Choosing one of the conduction minima in Fig. 14) where the subscripts l and t represent the longitudinal and transverse components of the wave vector k and effective mass m∗ , that is, the components parallel and perpendicular to the major axis of the constant-energy ellipsoid.
5 80 60 40 20 0 1017 1019 1018 Dopant concentration, ND or NA (cm–3) 1020 Fig. 53) ni is the actual intrinsic-carrier concentration and nio is the value for lightly to moderately doped silicon. 5 meV. 54) + ⎩ ⎭ 1017 1017 The above relation is valid for dopant concentrations below ∼3 × 1019 cm−3 . A plot of ΔEg versus dopant concentration is shown in Fig. 22. Experimental values for ΔEg obtained from other sources are reproduced in Fig. 23 . The “apparent bandgap narrowing” in the figure is the value that would account for an increase in ni if no other heavy doping effects occurred.
4 Energy Band Theory The characteristics of most silicon devices can be adequately described with the simplified energy band model presented in the preceding section. 3 Energy Bands in Silicon 13 several situations where a more in-depth discussion of the band theory would be beneficial. For example, the dependence of carrier mobility on crystallographic directions and the modulation of mobility by mechanical stress in silicon can be best understood with a more detailed energy band diagram than shown in Figs.