By Harold G. Reading
Sedimentary Environments is without doubt one of the such a lot extraordinary and influential textbooks within the earth sciences released within the final twenty years. the 1st and moment versions either received common compliment and have become vintage works in sedimentology. because the ebook of the final version, the examine of sedimentary environments and facies has made nice strides, with significant advances in facies modelling, series stratigraphy and basin modelling. The third version of this vintage textual content will most probably set the benchmark even larger, and remember that, will proceed being the textbook of selection for sedimentology scholars. the newest variation of a vintage textual content. comprises the entire newest advances in dynamic stratigraphy. Will stay the textbook of selection for top point undergraduate and graduate scholars in sedimentology.
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Extra resources for Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy, 3rd Edition
Absolute dating to sufficient accuracy is of course unreliable, particularly before the Tertiary. In addition, it is often difficult to define a cycle because variations in, for example, composition are often irregular or two or more regular cycles may be superimposed on each other. The method of spectral analysis is therefore used (Weedon, 1991, 1993). It Controls on the sedimentary rock record provides a more objective method of testing orbital-climatic control because regular cyclicity can be looked for, and superimposed regular cycles can be distinguished from each other and from noise.
It is widely and effectively used in the coal and mineral industries. In the petroleum industry cores were historically relatively few in number, typically widely spaced and expensive to obtain, though recently their value has been increasingly appreciated. Nevertheless, coring is commonly only undertaken in hydrocarbon exploration when the borehole is already within the prospective reservoir unit and hence important information about its relationship with neighbouring units may be missed. 4 Wireline logs and log facies Wireline logs measure the electrical, radioactive and acoustic properties of rocks, which are used to derive information on lithology, grain size, density, porosity and the pore fluids.
Spontaneous potential logs indicate permeability and are used as indicators of sand-shale ratio. However, tight sandstones, limestones and dolomites react in the same way as impermeable shales. The log is difficult to interpret quantitatively, has poor vertical resolution and is not easily run in offshore wells. Sonic logs measure the velocity of both compressional (P) and shear (S) sound waves passing through a formation and respond to both grains and fluids. They can be used to measure both porosity and lithology.