Download Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life PDF

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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Developmental Toxicology

Committee on Developmental Toxicology evaluates present methods used to evaluate threat for developmental defects and identifies key components of uncertainty in these techniques. additionally evaluates present knowing of the mechanisms of motion of chemical compounds leading to developmental defects. Highlights how new facts can be utilized and the way new applied sciences and knowledge will be built-in.

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Sample text

In accordance with this committee’s deliberations, the research section now includes a two-way arrow and specifically highlights emerging research on gene-environment interaction and developmental cell-signaling pathways. The iterative feedback loop between research and risk assessment is necessary to translate new findings in biology into scientifically based risk assessments. Source: Adapted from NRC 1983. 28 DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT these assessments are chemical structure-activity information, in vitro assessments, in vivo animal bioassays, and epidemiological studies.

2 Developmental Defects and Their Causes Major developmental defects, also referred to as major congenital anomalies, occur in approximately 3% of live births, that is, in 120,000 of the approximately 4 million births per year in the United States (ICBD 1991; CDC 1995; Holmes 1997; March of Dimes 1999; NCHS 1998). These anomalies are defined as ones that are life threatening, require major surgery, or present a significant disability (Marden et al. 1964). In 1995, major developmental defects accounted for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths (occurring before 1 month of age) and 22% of the 6,500 deaths of infants (before 15 months of age) in the United States (March of Dimes 1999).

Secondary testing is the assessment of chemicals that have some known potential developmental toxicity. Most commonly, secondary testing involves analogs of prototype chemicals that have known in vivo developmental toxicity. The objective is to replicate the observed developmental toxicity in a simple system. The approach has been successful, especially for pharmaceuticals and particularly with the use of isolated mammalian embryos and embryonic cells in culture. For example, the approach has been used for testing retinoids (Kistler and Howard 1990) and triazoles (Flint and Boyle 1985).

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