By K. Takeuchi, R.D. Brown, I. Washitani, A. Tsunekawa, M. Yokohari
Japan’s conventional and fragile satoyama panorama process used to be constructed over centuries of human existence on mountainous island terrain in a monsoon weather. The rigorously controlled coppice woodlands at the hillsides, the villages strung alongside the bottom of the hills, and the conscientiously tended paddy fields of rural Japan made attainable the sustainable interplay of nature and people. Radical adjustments in the course of the 20 th century ended in the abandonment of satoyama landscapes which now are being rediscovered. there's a new consciousness that those woodlands nonetheless play a necessary position within the administration of the japanese panorama and a brand new selection to regulate them for the longer term. This multifaceted e-book explores the heritage, nature, biodiversity, present conservation measures, and destiny makes use of of satoyama. the knowledge awarded the following might be of curiosity in all elements of the realm the place styles of sustainable improvement are being sought.
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Additional resources for Satoyama: The Traditional Rural Landscape of Japan
Lower figure: a satoyama landscape since 1965. In former satoyama landscapes, a coppice produced fuel (wood and charcoal) and fertilizer (fallen leaves), and kayaba (grassland) produced fodder for livestock. Farmland produced crops and vegetables, and their by-products were used for livestock fodder and fertilizer. In this way, people's lives strongly depended on satoyama landscapes, which provided food, fuel, fertilizer, fodder, and building materials. Recently, electricity, gas, and petroleum have been used as energy sources instead of wood fuel and charcoal, and chemical fertilizers have been used instead of organic compost.
2 2000 Changes In stock ralSlflg ",... 9 .. - ; .. ~~•. ~ ~ 1000 2 ~ 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 year 1,000 I BOO 600 400 200 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 year Fig. 1. Changes in national agriculture, forestry, and stock raising since 1900 (Yamamoto 2000) 44 3 Satoyama Landscape Transition Chugoku, Shikoku, and Kyushu had offset woodland destruction due to agricultural land development in Hokkaido and urbanization in the Kanto area (Himiyama 1995). Deciduous woodlands decreased, whereas mixed woodlands increased.
For example, someone who is not physically strong enough to thin trees may be able to chop the thinned trees. Coordination should be flexible enough so that people can participate to the full extent of their abilities. It is important to be able to maintain one's composure when coordinating activities and participants. Projects do not always work out as the coordinator intended. It is important for coordinators to recognize that it may be necessary to seek help and advice from others. 4 Environmental Policy and Satoyama Landscapes 35 It is necessary to not only take care of the matters within the organization, but also to create information networks among corresponding individuals and other organizations.