By National Council on Radiation Protection
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Extra resources for Radiation Protection in Dentistry
Older machines were designed for use with medium-speed calcium tungstate screen-film systems. In some cases the required reduction in x-ray output for use with high-speed rare-earth screen-film systems may be accomplished only by electronic modifications (prohibited by the federal performance standard) or by addition of filtration. Added filtration, unless compensated by lower kVp, hardens the beam spectrum, resulting in decreased image contrast. The dentist needs to be 24 / 3. RADIATION PROTECTION IN DENTAL FACILITIES aware of these limitations in selecting and maintaining panoramic equipment or prescribing panoramic examinations.
4 Image receptor. , 1998). Faster films, ANSI Speed Group E, were introduced in the early 1980s, with improved versions coming in the mid-1990s. , 1996). Published data show that these faster films provide for patient dose reductions of up to 50 percent. However, early E-speed films exhibited 22 / 3. , 1986; Thunthy and Weinberg, 1982). , 1998). Digital image receptors with speeds similar to or faster than E-speed film are available. Intraoral films of speed group F are commercially available. , 2001; Thunthy, 2000).
Disposable items eliminate the need for sterilization between patients, and may be dispensed in unit quantities to minimize contamination of larger supplies. 2, Waste Management). 2 Operative Procedures Gloves are worn during the performance of all intraoral radiographic procedures and when handling contaminated film packets, instruments, and other contaminated items, and during clean up procedures. , 1992; CDC, 2003; OSHA, 2001). , 1992). Hands are washed before and after wearing gloves. 2 WASTE MANAGEMENT / 51 infectious materials, including saliva, in dental procedures (ADA, 1996; CDC, 2003; OSHA, 2001).