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By Supriyo Datta

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Forward or reverse bias voltages can be applied to the diode structure. 1). In the case of GaAs, electrons and holes move into the active region where they recombine and emit light. Reverse bias voltages can be applied to the semiconductor diode, laser, and LED to use them as photodetectors. In reverse bias, photocurrent dominates the small amount of leakage current. 1 produce light under forward bias. Only Forward biasing a GaAs laser diode (top). The I–V the direct bandgap materials such as characteristics (bottom) show the photocurrent when the diode is reversed biased.

11). However, recall that a phosphorus dopant atom has 5 valence electrons but only needs 4 of them for bonding in the silicon crystal. The 5th electron remains only weakly bonded to the phosphorus nucleus at low temperatures. Small amounts of energy can ionize the dopant and promote the electron to the conduction band. Therefore, the dopant states must be very close to the conduction band as shown in the figure. At very low temperatures (below 70 K), we might expect all of the Si–Si bonding electrons to be in the valence band and most of the dopant electrons to be in the shallow dopant states.

An ‘‘atomic’’ model for light does not depart much from this earlier notion. In the 1600s, Newton favored the particle nature of light described by a corpuscular theory. At the same time, Huygens explained a number of light phenomena with the wave theory. In the early 1800s, Young demonstrated the interference of light beams and laid to rest the corpuscular theory. Maxwell collected all electromagnetic phenomena into the field equations, which unified the optical and RF phenomena and predicted the speed of light in vacuum.

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