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By Ashish Verma; T V Ramanayya

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Services are normally regulated and possibly subsidized from local or national tax revenue. Fully subsidized, zero-fare (free) services operate in some towns and cities. For historical and economic reasons, there are differences internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the world tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the new world have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport. 1 Transit modes A transit mode is mainly considered on three basic characteristics i.

Chennai, 4,681,087 5. Bangalore, 8,425,970 All these cities are experiencing traffic congestion during most of the day time in one locality or another. 2 illustrates a typical traffic jam in the city of Mumbai. 3 Rural settlement pattern 75% of India’s population lives in small villages with a few hundred people in a settlement. 16 ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ “K18880” — 2014/11/6 — 12:31 — page 17 — #27 ✐ ✐ Public Transport Planning and Management in Developing Countries These villages normally follow caste based clusters, an old social class system that is not exhibited in most urban areas.

4 percent of the total surface area of the world. India is nearly twenty times as large as Great Britain. Many of the Indian states are larger than several countries of the world. 1 indicates the Indian subcontinent with administrative boundaries of different states. India is predominantly rural, but it also has many densely populated metropolitan areas. Most of the land is inhabited except for the higher regions of the Himalayan mountains. Since the time of the Indus Valley civilization, the key factor that settlers have considered in deciding where to live in India has been the ability to have continuous cultivation.

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