Download Principles of Pollution Abatement. Pollution Abatement for by S.E. Jørgensen (Auth.) PDF

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By S.E. Jørgensen (Auth.)

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Sample text

6). 13) can be used as a good approximation if the time steps considered are significantly larger than the reaction time. This is often the case for the following environmental processes: adsorption, hydrolysis, chemical (but not biochemical)oxidations and acid-base reactions including neutralisation. Concentrations of pollutants as a function of time can be found by use of the mass conservation principles. If many processes are involved simultaneously, the use of a computer model is needed. Equilibrium description might be used for rapid processes.

S , , ~ , ' ~ Oxygen I BOD5 ,-~ Oxygen D5 Time or distance Fig. 18 Oxygen concentration, BOD5, suspended matter, S, versus distance in running water. The equations can be used to describe the oxygen profile in the flow direction, but if so, some hydraulic assumptions must be introduced: 1. that by discharge of polluted waste water into the river complete mixing with the flow will take place; 2. that the flow rate is the same throughout the entire cross-section of the river. These assumptions are hardly valid in practice, but may sometimes be used with good approximation.

The word eutrophication is used increasingly in the sense of the artificial addition of nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, to water. Eutrophication is generally considered to be undesirable, although it is not always so. The green colour of eutrophic lakes makes swimming and boating more unsafe due to increased turbidity. Furthermore, from an aesthetic point of view the chlorophyll concentration should not exceed 100 mg m ~ However, the most critical effect from an ecological viewpoint is the reduced oxygen content of the hypolimnion, caused by the decomposition of dead algae.

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