By Jan J. Boersema, Lucas Reijnders
International specialists supply a entire photograph of the rules, ideas and strategies which are acceptable to difficulties originating from the interplay among the living/non-living surroundings and mankind. either the research of such difficulties and how suggestions to environmental difficulties may go in particular societal contexts are addressed. Disciplinary methods are mentioned yet there's a concentrate on multi- and interdisciplinary tools. loads of useful examples and case reviews are offered. there's specific emphasis on modelling and built-in assessment.
This booklet is varied since it stresses the societal, cultural and historic dimensions of environmental difficulties. the most aim is to enhance the power to examine and conceptualise environmental difficulties in context and to make readers conscious of the price and scope of alternative methods.
Ideal as a path textual content for college kids, this booklet can also be of curiosity to researchers and specialists within the environmental sciences.
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Additional info for Principles of environmental sciences
J. Kirby & C. ), The ecological history of European forests (pp. 53–62). New York: Oxon. Dirkx, G. P. H. ). (2001). Vreemdelingen in de natuur. Special issue of: Jaarboek voor Ecologische Geschiedenis 2000. Ghent: Academia Press. , & Reith, R. (2001). Umwelt-Geschichte. Arbeitsfelder, Forschungsansätze, Perpektiven. Munich: Oldenbourg. 4 Environmental History: Object of Study and Methodology 31 Hoffmann, R. C. (1996). Economic development and aquatic ecosystems in medieval Europe. American Historical Review, 101(3), 631–669.
Cases 3 Reconstructing Environmental Changes over the Last 3 Million Years in point include various forms of environmental modelling and prediction, which are often based on data relating to the past and the impacts of climatic change, for example, on agriculture and sea level rise. Such models can be validated and uncertainties assessed, moreover, through reference to past and/or present circumstances. 2 Past Environmental Change In all likelihood environmental change played a significant role in hominid evolution and the later spread of Homo erectus and subsequently Homo sapiens out of Africa.
2 Farming Perhaps the most crucial of all the changes in human history was the creation of artificial ecosystems in which humans could grow crops and tend domesticated animals – what we call farming. It happened on at least four separate occasions across the world in the period between about 8000 and 4000 BCE – in south-west Asia, China, Mesoamerica and the Andes (Crops were also domesticated in the tropics but little evidence of how, when and where this was done has survived). The Near east is particularly important since it is the best documented and earliest example of the origins of food production (Byrd 2005).