By M.P.C. Weijnen, A.A.H. Drinkenburg
New technique expertise innovations are required to deal with the long run. Fossil feedstocks are wasting flooring in favour of renewable feedstocks and secondary assets. traditional processing routes utilizing thermal `sledgehammer' ideas are changed by way of hugely selective (bio)catalytic conversions. the long run technique engineer is neither allowed to imagine by way of unit operations, nor to take without any consideration the traditional perform of continuing regular kingdom processing. Hybrid structures and temporary operations are progressively more often encountered. the ongoing remarkable growth being made in approach modelling and regulate will revolutionize the method industries.
within the new new release of chemical creation approaches the key-phrase is precision. Precision by way of selectivity and of potency, is needed to maximise the utilisation of fabrics and effort. furthermore, improved precision is required to use the standard of fabrics and effort to the entire quantity. simply by means of lowering the squandering of fabrics, strength and caliber will a harmonious courting be validated among the method industries, the financial system, and the surroundings. approach integration, in addition to an built-in attempt through the disciplines taken with method know-how, could be of the most important significance achieve the targets of precision technique expertise.
those rising recommendations contain an energetic alternate of instruments and concepts among a number of disciplines, not just in plant layout and operation, yet much more within the early levels of procedure improvement and layout. via taking a look from a variety of angles at what the longer term has in shop for the method industries, this quantity systematically lifts the corners of the veil and will encourage to set up a brand new culture of precision in method expertise.
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Additional info for Precision Process Technology: Perspectives for Pollution Prevention
Table 2 summarizes characteristic data for a methane coupling with 100 % selectivity and different steam qualities. 56 t/t C2H4 3 t 2 ------------- 120 kg/GWs steam t 100 1,5 50 0,5 0 0 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 C-SELECTIVITY Figure 4 Production of C0 2 in oxidative methane-coupling 400K Atmospheric Flue gas HP steam 713K 6MPa ---------, r------- 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I [ 2 H6 - +1--+-.. Water ...... Water __________ jI Boiler water Figure 5 Furnace and quench circuit of thermal cracking.
Simulations show that the rate of transfer of reactants into the microporous network per unit area of space occupation dramatically increases with the number of levels in series whereas the overall diffusion time remains almost constant. Therefore, it would be interesting to try to synthesize fractal objects* and to use them as catalyst supports or membranes of high performances. Techniques from microelectronics or computer aided microstereolithography might be helpful to make such objects. Bioconyersion is a third class of methods deserving of consideration because of the high degree of specificity and selectivity which can be achieved by enzymatic conversion and by microbial processes.
Bioconyersion is a third class of methods deserving of consideration because of the high degree of specificity and selectivity which can be achieved by enzymatic conversion and by microbial processes. Biodegradation also plays a major role for the detoxification and cleaning up of effluents. Genetic en~ineerin~ offers very attractive possibilities to modify microorganisms in order to convert a given substrate or to yield a desired product, including in the vegetable area (40). Increased cooperation should be established between chemical engineers, biologists and biochemists for the elucidation of cellular mechanisms.