By Lieve Van de Walle
This publication explores the chances and boundaries of pragmatic examine in classical Sanskrit targeting linguistic politeness. The 4 case reports it contains are in essence empirical, and check out to effectively describe a pretty constrained variety of interactions among an additionally restricted variety of humans. The underlying assumption is micro-analysis yields recognizable styles of communicative types and that those generalizations increase our perception within the workings of politeness (deference) during this language and in languages as a rule. This ebook additionally exhibits that the relation among classical languages and pragmatics isn't really unavoidably a one-way highway. the information offer abundant facts precise textual content learn deals wealthy possibilities either to complement experimental reports (e.g. the Cross-Cultural Speech Act awareness undertaking) and to guage current pragmatic theories developed at the foundation of up to date languages.
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Extra resources for Pragmatics and Classical Sanskrit: A Pilot Study in Linguistic Politeness
Most criticism of Brown and Levinson's approach centers around the following points: First, they view communication "as a fundamentally dangerous and antagonistic endeavor" (cf. 2); third, they postulate a positive correlation between politeness and indirectness; fourth, in channelling all their energy in the study of politeness as a strategy, they neglect other aspects of politeness. Concerning this last issue, in her review article on politeness Kasper (1990:196) strongly argues that politeness is not only an issue of strategy ("performing a linguistic action in order to reach specific communicative goals").
An essential element in the Indian concept of love is that it involves free choice and is not forced upon one (cf. Shukla 1987:55-57). Brahmins consider their association with a courtesan as neither illegal, nor de grading, nor unbecoming (cf. Sabnis 1966: 129), although it is occasionally a source of embarrassment (cf. Cārudatta's attitude in the court in the Mrcchakatikā IX, 145). Courtesans are not supposed to fall in love with their clients. It is a rule of honor that they do not rest before they have completely bled their client dry (for a blunt description of their duties, cf.
On the basis of their social relationship they negotiate a sort of contract. Being polite involves operating in accordance with the rules set in that contract. An important factor which is often overlooked, ignored or minimized is that this contract is renegotiable at any point during the conversation, so the rules that have to be obeyed are quite flexible and, hence, hard to pin down (cf. Koike 1989:188; cf. also further below). In contrast with the views on politeness previously presented, Blum-Kulka's (1987:131) definition of politeness does not attribute any significance to the notion of face.