By A. S. Bhalla, Frederic Lapeyre
This quantity seems on the 3 dimensions of social exclusion: financial, social and political. Exclusion is analyzed as a brand new method of such concerns because the "new" poverty, precariousness, long term unemployment, social polarization and shortage of citizenship. The e-book indicates how relational and distributional elements of poverty are interlinked.
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Additional resources for Poverty and Exclusion in a Global World, Second Edition
In the latter part of the 1980s, research in the social sciences shifted from the static deﬁnition of poverty, based on a monetary approach, to the processes leading, at least in some cases, to the extreme situation of social exclusion through the cumulation of disadvantages and a progressive rupture of social bonds. As Mingione (1996) explains, it is necessary to look at dynamic processes and their perception within changing systems of social integration. From this perspective, the notion of exclusion both promotes the debate and motivates social science research.
The concept of social exclusion was explicitly mentioned in the preamble of the 1989 European Social Charter which pointed out that ‘in the spirit of solidarity it is important to combat social exclusion’ (European Commission, 1989). Following on this new commitment, the European Council of Ministers adopted a resolution on ‘combating social exclusion’ (Council of the European Communities, 1989). , 1991, 1992 and 1993). The ﬁght against social exclusion was mentioned as an objective in the Protocol on Social Policy of the EC Treaty in Maastricht in 1992 but it was not yet part of the constitutional core of the EU.
Sen’s major contribution is to broaden the scope of social policy aimed at giving all citizens the means to achieve effective freedom to act by empowering them and increasing their capabilities. In Sen’s approach, capability and freedom to act go together. It thus has great afﬁnity with the rights-based approach inﬂuenced by Marshall’s (1950) work and adopted by the EU. Both approaches entail ‘activation’ policies3 and active labour market policies to increase the opportunities of the unemployed to reintegrate into the labour market, and of the employed to maintain their employability through lifelong learning.