Download Political Islam in Turkey: Running West, Heading East? by G. Jenkins PDF

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By G. Jenkins

For all of the realization to radical political Islam, there's little understanding that the democratically elected executive of Turkey has an Islamic taste. This e-book areas inside of ancient context the increase of the Islamic political get together now governing Turkey and examines the results of its rule for that nation and its family with Europe, the U.S. and the center East.

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Archaeological and documentary evidence suggests that, compared with Arab and Persian cities, there were very few religious schools or madrasas in Anatolia. Generally, Muslim life under the Seljuks appears still to have been dominated not by the class of Islamic theologians, lawyers, teachers, and judges known as the ulema but by the Sufis. In the early thirteenth century, the population of Anatolia was swelled by an influx of refugees fleeing the Mongol invasion of southwestern Asia. Most of the migrants were nomads, tradesmen, and artisans, but they also included intellectuals and mystics.

1009), appear to have been converted to relatively orthodox Sunni Islam. But, although they acknowledged the Seljuks’ political leadership, the majority of the Oghuz seem to have been, at most, only superficially Islamicized. 22 As they grew in military might, the Seljuks adopted many of the trappings of the Muslim rulers whom they had displaced, including using Persian as the language of their court. After the capture in 1055 of Baghdad, which was still the seat of the Sunni caliph, the Seljuk leaders assumed the title of sultan23 and began describing themselves as guardians of the caliphate.

In 1464, he abdicated and retired to a monastery to write learned works on philosophical and theological issues. 59 Unlike the Greek Orthodox Church, there was no Armenian Patriarchate in Constantinople before 1453. The two main Armenian ecclesiastical centers of the time were beyond the Ottoman borders in Ejmiadzin and Cilicia. Today, the Armenian Church maintains that its patriarchate in Constantinople was established by FROM SHAMANISM TO CALIPHATE 33 Mehmet II in 1461. Yet not only is there no evidence to support the claim but surviving Armenian ecclesiastical documents from the late fifteenth century make no reference to a patriarchate in Constantinople.

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