By R E Hester, R M Harrison (eds.)
Medicines play an enormous position within the therapy and prevention of affliction in people and animals, yet residues from those drugs could be published into the surroundings via a few routes in the course of their manufacture, use and disposal. it's only lately that the aptitude environmental affects of this publicity to prescription drugs are being considered.
The e-book explores the place pharmaceutical residues are available, e.g. in floor waters, ingesting water, sediments and the marine setting; the resources of those residues, from manufacture via to disposal of unused medicinal drugs; how those residues holiday down; and the way this all affects on flora and fauna and human health.
In reviewing the present place and reading additional attainable affects, this booklet is a crucial reference for researchers operating within the pharmaceutical undefined, in addition to for environmentalists, coverage makers and scholars on pharmacy and environmental technological know-how classes eager to greater comprehend the affects of prescription drugs at the environment.
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Additional info for Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
Williams, Lancet Infect. , 2013, 13, 155. 46. B. Goldacre, Bad Pharma, Fourth Estate, London, 2013. 47. W. Noor and M. Kleinrock, Pharmaceutical Executive, 2013, May. 48. G. Boehm, L. Yaoa, L. Hana and Q. Zheng, Acta Pharm. Sin. B, 2013, 3, 297. 49. J. A. DiMasi, R. W. Hansen and H. G. Grabowski, J. , 2003, 22, 151. 50. M. E. Bunnage, Nat. Chem. , 2011, 7, 335. 51. D. php. 52. pdf. View Online 12:23:28. 1039/9781782622345-00001 The Pharmaceutical Industry and the Future of Drug Development 31 53.
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3 Access to Medicines This inevitably produces a substantial number of ‘‘orphan diseases’’: lifethreatening conditions that aﬀect only a small fraction of the population, usually defined as between 1/1000 and 1/5000, which no commercial organisation can aﬀord to investigate, simply because there are insuﬃcient patients from which to recoup the investment cost. As the time and cost of development increases and the useful patent life shrinks, the number of commercially unviable areas also increases.