By Frank Den Hond, Peter Groenewegen, Nico van Straalen
Regardless of a heritage of a number of a long time of pesticide legislation, non-stop innovation, and substantial useful adventure with utilizing insecticides in agriculture, the environmental effect of pesticide use remains to be of great situation.
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Additional info for Pesticides: Problems, Improvements and Alternatives
European Journal of Agronomy, 7, 133–43. C. & Scholte, K. (1992) Crop rotation. In: Proceedings Congress Agriculture and Environment in Eastern Europe and The Netherlands (ed. L. Meulenbroek), pp. 395–423. Wageningen University, Wageningen. C. G. (1999) Seed potato technology. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen. Tombs, S. (1993) The chemical industry and environmental issues. In: Business and environment: Implications of the new environmentalism (ed. D. Smith), pp. 131–49. Chapman, London. W. (1997) Pests and diseases.
When is control needed? Where should control take place (in patches or throughout the field)? How should control take place? ’, threshold densities for control can be taken into consideration, although it is not always easy in all cases (see earlier). A threshold level can just be tolerated, based on economic criteria or risk assessment. , de Buck 2001). The differences are associated with the time horizon of the occurrence and duration of the biotic stress. Timing of control is crucial, but it also depends on the techniques of control.
Norton, New York. Chapter 2 An Agricultural Vision Paul C. Struik and Martin J. Kropff Introduction Agriculture will always have to cope with crop losses caused by biotic stresses. During the last fifty years these stresses were controlled by pesticides, a strategy that has proved unsustainable in the long run. New, ecological approaches will be systemoriented and supported by a thorough insight in the short-term, mid-term and longterm effects of control strategies on the economic sustainability of intensive farming, the effect on food security and the environmental impact.