By K. Rupp, J. Holzki, T. Fischer, C. Keller
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Extra info for Pediatric Anesthesia 1999
Xenon is used, the analgesic effect is excellent. In addition, xenon has no effect on the hemodynamics or compliance of the lungs. Xenon is also considered environmentally friendly. Since this gas is only available in limited quantities, its use is extremely costly. Means must be found to scavenge the gas by using special scavenging equipment or it must be sparingly used (for example by implementing a closed rebreathing system). Xenon is not yet registered nor is it validated for pediatric anesthesia.
Barotrauma could occur during IPPV as a result of an inspiratory flow which is too high, secretion deposits, or bronchospasm. What are the advantages of pressure-controlled ventilation over volumecontrolled ventilation? The major advantage of PCV over volume-controlled modes (IPPV) in conventional partial rebreathing systems is in being able to use uncuffed endotracheal tubes for neonates and small children, which allow large amounts of leakage (> 20 % of the minute volume). By increasing the flow to maintain the set pressure, losses caused by leakage are automatically compensated for to a certain degree.
0 5 10 post-conceptional age in years 50 100 Anesthetic Agents Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide, a rather odorless gas with good analgesic properties, is used as a supplement in general anesthesia. It is not a potent anesthetic (MAC 105 %) and has, by reason of its low solubility in the blood, a very rapid washin/wash-out rate. Nitrous oxide, which has little effect on the functionality of the circulatory system, should not be used on newborns and children with pulmonary infections since, in this case, it could trigger so-called diffusion hypoxia.