By Virginia H. Aksan
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In 1543, the Ottoman fleet seemed off the coast of France to bombard and lay siege to the town of great. The operation, lower than the command of Admiral Barbarossa, got here in line with a request from François I of France for the aid of Sultan Süleyman the brilliant in France’s fight opposed to Charles V, the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.
Ottoman naval expertise underwent a metamorphosis below the rule of thumb of Sultan Selim III. New kinds of crusing warships similar to - and three-decked galleons, frigates and corvettes started to dominate the Ottoman fleet, rendering the galley-type oared ships out of date. this era observed technological recommendations comparable to the adoption of the systematic copper sheathing of the hulls and bottoms of Ottoman warships from 1792-93 onwards and the development of the 1st dry dock within the Golden Horn.
Turkey is either an previous and a brand new nation. whereas the Turks were residing in Anatolia for the final millennium, the rustic has undergone vast Westernization because the finish of the 18th century. despite the fact that, in relation to Turkey, culture has no longer arrested modernization; fairly, the conventional has tailored itself to the fashionable.
The heritage of Jerusalem as usually depicted is the critical background of clash and strife, of ethnic pressure, and of incompatible nationwide narratives and visions. it's also a heritage of dramatic adjustments and moments, the most radical ones being the alternative of the Ottoman regime with British rule in December 1917.
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Additional info for Ottomans and Europeans, Contacts and Conflicts
In 1885, the Kasap ƒlyas mahalle had 925 registered Muslim inhabitants and, in 1907, a total of 1,160 inhabitants, 1,039 of which were Muslim. Other Written Sources Quantitative data and sources for the pre-nineteenth-century Istanbul population are difﬁcult to come by. The available estimates, most of them by European travelers and Orientalists, are approximations with a usually low degree of reliability. Besides, Istanbul was never taxed in the same manner as the provinces, never had a Tapu Tahrir Defteri, and was never, even immediately after the Ottoman conquest, subjected to a census.
A ﬁrst screening was done by previously selecting the court cases where either the plaintiff, the defendant, and/or the object of discord were living or were situated in the Kasap ƒlyas mahalle. Interviews and Personal Narratives A small number of in-depth interviews have also been conducted with elderly inhabitants of Kasap ƒlyas. Nine of them were with Kasap ƒlyas-born men who were still in touch with their mahalle of origin, and one was with the wife of a former muhtar. The interviews were conducted either in their homes or in a coffeehouse in the mahalle where elderly people regularly met on Sundays.
As to the urban local level, population ﬁgures are non-existent. The ﬁrst citywide reliable count is that of 1885. The Archives of the Religious Courts (¥er’iye Sicilleri Arœivi) for Istanbul are classiﬁed on a topographical basis, given that many of the courts of justice were also responsible for law and order in speciﬁc chunks of the city. The archives for the Davud Paœa District, of which the Kasap ƒlyas mahalle is a part, span the period between 1782 and 1924. The Davudpaœa Court of Justice, always headed by an aide (na’ib) of the kadı of Istanbul, was one of the oldest courts of the city.