By Erol Köroglu
All through global struggle I the Entente Powers (France, Britain, Russia and later the us) directed common efforts in the direction of the iteration of propaganda as a weapon of warfare, with devastating influence. despite the fact that, within the underdeveloped and multi-ethnic Ottoman Empire, the Turkish intelligentsia couldn't produce sufficient propaganda to help the warfare attempt. because the conflict opened up, writers deserted their preliminary makes an attempt at propaganda and grew to become as an alternative to the duty of defining a countrywide id. during this new reassessment of Turkish literature and propaganda in international struggle I, Erol Köroglu argues the Ottoman-Turkish intelligentsia used the stipulations created by way of the warfare to do away with the deficiencies in nationwide tradition and construct a Turkish identification, a undertaking inherited from the pre-war years.
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Extra resources for Ottoman Propaganda and Turkish Identity: Literature in Turkey During World War I (Library of Ottoman Studies)
16 Nevertheless, this approving and optimistic atmosphere, present in the press output of the first months of the war, would not have satisfactory results. For example, at the beginning of 1916, Celâl Sahir [Erozan], a poet with close ties to the ruling CUP, wrote an article titled “Literary Year” in which he evaluated the literary scene of the previous year and observed that literary output had been very poor and that this was due to conditions arising from the war. During a war, he continued, although sentiments are stronger than usual, writers have difficulties expressing them.
Throughout the war Celâl Nuri wrote for Edebiyat-› Umumiye Mecmuas› (Journal of General Literature) and Abdullah Cevdet for various newspapers, but the Westernists had by now lost their pre-1914 strength. The Ideolog›cal Foundat›ons 31 Positioning Turkism According to Miroslav Hroch’s ‘NationBuilding Process’ Approach Turkish historiography and the way recent history is perceived have a teleological appearance. Also applicable in this case is the principle that the way the past is remembered and interpreted in a written text depends upon the moment of writing.
46 In Istanbul, which had a population of approximately one million in 1914, there were eighty-four million single transport operations, with a per capita yearly average of eighty-six. 47 Foreign vessels carried out ninety percent of maritime transportation, and the Ottoman commercial fleet largely was made up of small sailboats. There were few highways and the few existing ones were in a state of disrepair. The greatest deficiency of the Ottoman transport infrastructure was to be found in its railroad network.