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In tertiary education, China has made truly remarkable progress since the early 1990s: − Total tertiary education enrolments have risen from 5 million to 23 million. 3 million in 2004. 7 million in 2005. − The education participation rate for the 18-22 years cohort has grown from less than 10% to 22%. − Participation has grown among students from rural backgrounds, women and minorities. − The number of regular TEIs has expanded from 1 054 in 1995 to 1 731 in 2004. − Private sector regular TEIs have risen from 20 in 1995 to 226 in 2004.

President Jiang Zemin’s approach (quanmian xiaokang shehui) gave priority to that part of Deng’s vision, of some people and regions prospering first, with less attention to “common prosperity”. In 2001, China formally joined the World Trade Organisation and agreed to lower tariffs and reduce market impediments. In 2005 the Government replaced pegging of the Yuan to the US dollar with a managed float against a basket of currencies. The Fifth Plenum of the Sixteenth Congress of the CPC in October 2005 presented the 11th Five-Year Economic Plan aimed at building a “harmonious society” (hexie shehui).

There are 699 TEIs authorised to offer postgraduate coursework degrees and 344 authorised to offer the PhD. There are 53 designated Graduate Colleges. 5 shows the structure of China’s tertiary education system (formal regular TEIs) categorised by Carnegie classification equivalence (Liu, 2006). 0 Source: Liu, 2006. The 211 Project, announced in 1993 and implemented in 1995, approved funding from a pool of RMB 30 billion for 100 universities (including some that had merged into more comprehensive research and teaching institutions) to improve facilities and curricula, and build a network of OECD REVIEWS OF TERTIARY EDUCATION – CHINA – ISBN-978-92-64-03934-6 © OECD 2009 36 – 2.

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