By Louis De Broglie; Arthur J Knodel and Jack C. Miller (trans)

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**Example text**

To understand this dark-bright exciton splitting, let us first consider what happens when a photon is absorbed or emitted in a semiconductor. 11 (a) In photon absorption, one electron is excited from the valence band to the conduction band. (b) Feynman diagram for this process: the initial state has one photon and one valence electron; the final state has one conduction electron. 12 The diagram in (a) is equivalent to the diagram shown in Fig. 11(b): one photon and one valence electron transform into one conduction electron.

10) where Nmax is the maximum number of excitons the sample can accommodate. 11) 28 The Exciton Concept where —of the order of two phonon energies—is the energy extension of the “potential layer” over which the attractive BCS potential acts, while ρ is the density of states taken † † as constant in this layer; so, ρ + 1 is the number of free pair states ak↑ a–k↓ with energy εF0 ≤ εk ≤ εF0 + that participate in the Cooper pair formation. This number also is the maximum number of Cooper pairs that the potential layer can host.

11(a)). In this process, the initial state has one valence electron and one photon, and the final state has one conduction electron (see Fig. 11(b)). The diagram of Fig. 11(b) is equivalent to the diagram of Fig. 12(a) or that of Fig. 12(b) in terms of electron and hole: indeed, photon absorption accompanies the creation of an electron-hole pair, as is obvious from Fig. 11(a). We now consider photon emission. It accompanies the de-excitation of an electron from the conduction band to the valence band, as shown in Fig.