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Additional info for New Types of Persistent Halogenated Compounds
The removal of 93 % of the hydrophobic acid components through UF treatment resulted in a reduction of trihalomethane (reduction of 54 % of THMs) and haloacetic acid (reduction of 30 % of HAAs) formation (Lamsal et al. 2012). Nanofiltration is a membrane process most often used for water softening and remove DBPs precursors (Hillie and Mbhuti 2007). The NF membrane is very effective to remove NOM from drinking water. NF may compete with other technologies such as GAC adsorption for NOM removal (Lin et al.
2011). The use of chloramine promotes the formation of regulated and unregulated DBPs including N-nitrosodimethlamine (NDMA) which is more toxic than THMs and HAAs. 7 ng/L (USEPA 2006). 0 mg/L). 6. Despite the several advantage reported by use of these alternatives, inadequate protection of water distribution system could promote the increase of the incidence of water borne diseases as a result of increased exposure to pathogenic microorganisms (Chowdhury et al. 2011). The removal of DBPs precursors such as natural organic matter (NOM) from water represents one of the effective strategies for controlling the formation of DBPs.
1998; USEPA 2006; Chowdhury et al. 2007). However, chlorination process poses chemical threat to human health due to DBPs (Legay et al. 2011). In the presence of precursors such as NOM, the DBPs are formed (Mesdaghinia et al. 2005). ) have been a concern since 1974 due to their possible cancer risks to human health and other sub-chronic/chronic health effects such as cardiac anomalies, low birth weight, still birth and pre-term delivery (Richardson et al. 2008; Villanueva et al. 2004; Mills et al.