By World Bank
'With ample underdeveloped reserves of usual fuel, this source has the aptitude to play a wide position in assembly the world's transforming into power demand.'
Natural fuel competes with different assets to be used in strength iteration. furthermore, its different makes use of have elevated dramatically. because it bargains big environmental benefits over different hydrocarbon fuels, governments and traders are contemplating ordinary fuel. This quantity examines a number concerns with regards to gasoline zone reform and fuel industry improvement. It additionally examines the reform adventure in an array of nations. The final part studies many of the advertisement concerns confronted in increasing the function of fuel, akin to, the demanding situations of constructing and financing cross-border gasoline pipeline exchange and the problems of attracting traders to tasks related to nations with excessive credits and foreign money dangers.
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Additional info for Natural Gas: Private Sector Participation and Market Development
Moreover, the cost allocations between infrastructure and marketing are blurred in the early days of a new industry. 2 million kilowatt−hours a year) in late 2004. Given that customers are being connected gradually over the eight−year exclusive license period, the average monopoly supply period for these customers will be four to five years. The monopoly period is shorter for larger industrial customers−from two to three years, with each district opening up to competition on a rolling basis. The scope for competition may be limited given the small or nonexistent margins between transport and supply charges for many years.
Private Investors Emerge Neither government was in a position to fund the pipeline project. As a first step to raise private finance, Petrobras embarked on a series of roadshows in 1994 to choose private equity partners for a new pipeline company on the Brazilian side. A. [TBG]). This company, with an initial 51 percent ownership by Petrobras, would Private Investors Emerge 36 Natural Gas own the Brazilian part of the pipeline. However, the private partners began to signal to the government that fair access to downstream markets and market−based pricing policies would be important for the realization of the project−policies in line with those recommended earlier by the World Bank to the Brazilian government as key for the development of the hydrocarbon sector.
Long−term gas contracts, for supply of more than one year. Natural gas transactions were traditionally based on long−term supply contracts between integrated gas companies and their customers. Because these contracts fixed the price and volume of gas to be supplied over a specified period, they reduced supply and price risks. But they provided little flexibility to reflect the economic value of natural gas under changing market conditions. For example, the economic value of natural gas tends to be high during extremely cold weather, when gas supply and transportation capacity are generally constrained.