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By Gerhard Wilde (Eds.)

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Y6/5 and only the triple product P ϭ sδDgb can be determined, but not the nano-GB diffusivity Dgb itself. The parameter β ϭ P/2D v Dv t has to be large enough in order to observe a distinct GB diffusion-related tail. The effect of β on the accuracy in the determination of P was analysed by Monte-Carlo simulation of GB diffusion and β Ն 2 can be used as a lower limit of the B regime [120]. The diffusion flux (I) represents a fundamentally new situation, which was analysed for self- and solute diffusion, respectively [121,124].

Gleiter [92,93]. A status report has recently been published by Würschum et al. [94]. Theoretical models of diffusion enhancement associated with transformations of GB defects in nanocrystalline materials were reviewed by Ovid’ko [95]. In the last decade, the focus of diffusion studies has been shifted to full density nanoscaled and ultrafine grained materials produced by different methods of severe plastic deformation. These new findings will be summarized here. In spite of a considerable progress in our understanding of diffusion in nanocrystalline materials, a number of fundamental problems remains still unresolved: to what extent do GBs in nanocrystalline materials differ from the relaxed boundaries in coarse-grained materials and to what extent do the various types of grain boundaries in the same material differ; what is the relation between the GB structure and the corresponding energetic and kinetic properties; could one Functional Nanostructured Materials 27 apply the concept of an ‘averaged grain boundary’ in a nanomaterial; what is the effect of the production route?

2 Controlled crystallization of amorphous precursors The controlled crystallization of amorphous precursors is also used for production of nanoscaled materials, as described earlier in this chapter. In such a case, the experimental measurements of GB diffusion are highly complicated by the presence of a residual fraction of an amorphous phase [110]. 22. In this case, interfacial diffusion is observed to be similar to or even slower than that in respective coarse-grained materials. This behaviour is explained by residual intergranular amorphous phase [110].

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