By Michael Berger
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Nanotechnology presents us with instruments to create useful fabrics, units, and structures via controlling fabrics on the atomic and molecular scales through utilising novel houses and phenomena. since such a lot chemical and organic sensors, in addition to many actual sensors, rely on interactions taking place in the nanoscale variety, the influence that nanotechnology can have at the sensor global is important.
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Extra info for Nano-Society: Pushing the Boundaries of Technology (RSC Nanoscience and Nanotechnology)
We were able to generate, for the ﬁrst time, a nonthermal corona discharge in liquid around electrodes with ultrasharp tips and around nanowires,’’ says Yury Gogotsi. ‘‘We have demonstrated that plasmas created with 50 nm probe tips or carbon nanotubes (CNTs)—what we have termed nanoscale corona discharge probes (NCDPs)—dispersed in solution allow simultaneous chemical analysis of multiple dissolved elements within nanoseconds. J. J. Drexel Plasma Institute). Gogotsi says that the OES method proposed by the Drexel scientists can be applied for ultra-fast, time-resolved, multi-elemental analysis of liquid in microﬂuidic reactors, living biological systems, or environmental sensors and for diagnostics of femtolitre volumes with 1 mm or better spatial resolution.
LIBS works by focusing short laser pulses on to the surface of a sample to create a hot plasma with temperatures of 10 000–20 000 1C. The plasma emits radiation that allows the observation of the characteristic atomic emission lines of the elements. The downside is that LIBS is complicated by the need for multiple laser pulses to generate a suﬃciently hot plasma and the need for focusing and switching a powerful laser, requiring relatively large and expensive instruments. Research coming out of Drexel University has shown that light emitted from a new form of cold plasma in liquid—ﬁeld emission generated, highly nonequilibrium, and high energy density—permits optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis of the elemental composition of solutions within nanoseconds from femtolitre (10–15 L) volumes.
They allowed the drop to stay on the hot substrate for approximately 5 s before the substrate was tilted 301 to the horizontal to exploit gravity for the propagation of the loaded droplet across the substrate surface. When a water 32 Chapter 2 droplet loaded with silver nanoparticles was subjected to this procedure, nanowires or cluster chains were successfully produced. ‘‘Apart from straight, parallel lines in series, nanoparticles can also be arranged in concentric circles with our Leidenfrost structuring,’’ says Adelung.