Download MP: Vander et al's Human Physiology by Eric P. Widmaier, Hershel Raff, Kevin T. Strang, Eric PDF

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By Eric P. Widmaier, Hershel Raff, Kevin T. Strang, Eric Widmaier

The 9th version of this vintage textual content has been entrusted into the able fingers of a dynamic new writer group. Eric Widmaier, Hershel Raff, and Kevin Strang have taken at the problem of retaining the strengths and attractiveness that experience lengthy been the hallmark of Human body structure: The Mechanisms of physique functionality. the elemental objective of this textbook has remained undeniably an analogous: to give the foundations and evidence of human body structure in a structure that's compatible for undergraduates despite educational history or box of research. Human body structure, 9th version, incorporates at the culture of readability and accuracy, whereas refining and updating the content material to satisfy the wishes of trendy teachers and scholars. The 9th variation encompasses a streamlined, clinically orientated concentration to the examine of human physique platforms. Widmaier is taken into account better point than Human body structure by way of Stuart Fox. because of its elevated emphasis at the mechanisms of physique services.

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An atom containing a single (unpaired) electron in its outermost orbital is known as a free radical, as are molecules containing such atoms. Free radicals can react with other atoms, thereby filling the unpaired orbital. Free radicals are diagramed with a dot next to the atomic symbol. Examples of biologically important free radicals are superoxide anion, O2 ؒ Ϫ; hydroxyl radical, OH ؒ ; and nitric oxide, NO ؒ . Note that a free radical configuration can occur in either an ionized (charged) or an un-ionized atom.

The electric charge associated with the ends of a polar bond is considerably less than the charge on a fully ionized atom. For example, the oxygen in the polarized hydroxyl group has only about 13 percent of the negative charge associated with the oxygen in an ionized carboxyl group, ROCOOϪ. Polar bonds do not have a net electric charge, as do ions, since they contain equal amounts of negative and positive charge. Atoms of oxygen and nitrogen, which have a relatively strong attraction for electrons, form polar bonds with hydrogen atoms.

39 Widmaier−Raff−Strang−Erskine: Human Physiology, Ninth Edition 40 CHAPTER TWO 2. Chemical Composition of the Body © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2003 Text Chemical Composition of the Body NH2 COOH NH 2 FIGURE 2 – 16 Conformation (shape) of the protein molecule myoglobin. Each dot corresponds to the location of a single amino acid. Adopted from Albert L. Lehninger. COOH other; and (4) covalent bonds linking the side chains of two amino acids (Figure 2–17). An example of the attractions between various regions along a polypeptide chain is the hydrogen bond that can occur between the hydrogen linked to the nitrogen atom in one peptide bond and the double-bonded oxygen in another peptide bond (Figure 2–18).

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