By Todd S. Rosenstock, Mariana C. Rufino, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Lini Wollenberg, Meryl Richards
This e-book offers criteria and guidance for quantifying greenhouse gasoline emissions and removals in smallholder agricultural structures and evaluating strategies for weather switch mitigation in response to emission discount rates and livelihood trade-offs. Globally, agriculture is at once answerable for approximately eleven% of annual greenhouse gasoline (GHG) emissions and induces an extra 17% via land use switch, in most cases in constructing international locations. Farms within the constructing international locations of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are predominately controlled through smallholders, with eighty% of land holdings smaller than ten hectares. even if, little to no details exists on greenhouse gasoline emissions and mitigation potentials in smallholder agriculture. Greenhouse gasoline measurements in agriculture are pricey, time eating, and blunder companies, demanding situations merely exacerbated by way of the heterogeneity of smallholder structures and landscapes. issues over methodological rigor, dimension charges, and the range of methods, coupled with the call for for strong info recommend it truly is germane for the medical neighborhood to set up criteria of measurements for quantifying GHG emissions from smallholder agriculture. usual guidance to be used by means of scientists, improvement companies can assist generate trustworthy facts on emissions baselines and make allowance rigorous comparisons of mitigation techniques. the ideas defined during this publication, built by way of the CGIAR learn application on weather switch, Agriculture, and nutrients safety (CCAFS) and companions, are meant to notify somebody carrying out box measurements of agricultural greenhouse gasoline assets and sinks, specifically to improve IPCC Tier 2 emission elements or to check mitigation suggestions in smallholder systems.
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Extra info for Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture
Ruﬁno et al. Fig. 11 Conceptual model and products of the nested targeting approach. The model indicates the sort of outputs obtained at each level. The integration of all level measurements conducted at ﬁeld-level is to be scaled up indicators. To achieve this, enough ﬁeld sites have to be selected to represent each landscape class, and must be monitored for GHG emissions, carbon stock changes, production of biomass, and other variables of interest. The number of replicates or ﬁeld sites to represent a landscape class will depend on within-class heterogeneity, and the resources available for monitoring emissions.
Extensive (>70 % of the area) and connected (few identiﬁable large patches) cover. Most plots (>75 %) are comparatively large and of similar size (~1 ha), regular-shaped (rectangular), and have a heterogeneous color and brightness. Heterogeneity in this class originates from plough or crop lines, pointing to a crop cover. ). , surface salt accumulation, lack of vegetation, gullies) Presence of a matrix of any original vegetation type (forests, shrublands, savannahs). Trees or large shrubs are clearly distinguishable by their round shape or shadows in the images No single cover type reaches 70 % of the area, and patches of crop, pasture, and natural vegetation are intermingled Same as A, but most plots are smaller, of variable area and shape (rounded, elongated, irregular).
8. Bars show averages and standard deviation for each class (depicted by the number and color). Lines in (a) represent homogeneous landscape units from the visual interpretation of Fig. 2 ﬁeld or land type or convergences between different classes as shown in Figs. 9, with strong impacts on cascading ecosystem processes. To identify landscape units using only functional information, we integrated functional attributes by applying an unsupervised classiﬁcation procedure. In contrast 2 Targeting Landscapes to Identify Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture 29 with a LULC classiﬁcation, we do not expect a priori conceptual scheme, both in terms of the number of classes and their identity.