By John D. Beadle (eds.)
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Additional resources for Metal Forming
Comparison of stress systems (slip lines) in a round billet under static loading between 2 rolls and 3 rolls. reeling is being carried out. The choice between hot or cold operation depends on the size of the workpiece, its analysis and the degree of straightness and roundness required. Rotary piercing A more complex form of transverse rolling is the rotary piercing of billets, and this is the starting point for most seamless tube processes. The technique of rotary piercing arose out of an accidental discovery made towards the end of the last century by the Mannesmann brothers, who were at the time engaged in the family file making business in Remschied, Germany.
Hammer characteristics. Maximum load MN 3 Strokes per min 110 Stroke mm 220 6 110 200 10 95 250 13 90 250 18 25 70 60 280 350 Table 3. Sizes of mechanical forging presses. 1 2 3 4 Aluminium alloys Magnesium alloys Copper alloys Carbon and low alloy steels 5 Martensitic stainless steels 6 Maraging steels 7 8 9 10 11 12 Austenitic stainless steels Nickel alloys Titanium alloys Iron base super alloys Cobalt base super alloys Nickel base super alloys Table 4. The common forging materials in order of increasing forging difficulty.
The ram is the same diameter as the bore of the container. Indirect extrusion (Fig. 2). In this, the ram is the same diameter as the bore of the container but the ram is hollow. A die is mounted over the bore of the ram and the metal flows, on extrusion, in the opposite direction to the ram movement and through the bore of the ram. Backward extrusion (Fig. 3). The ram is smaller in diameter than the container and the material is moved up the annulus formed by the ram and the container. Normally a heated billet is used.