By Touraj Atabaki, Erik J. Zürcher
During this publication, the authors hint the emergence of Atat?rk and Reza Shah throughout the constitutional revolutions in Iran and the Ottoman Empire, which ended in the advent of ecu social versions, the institution of dictatorship and of secularist reforms. In either situations, this led to hugely authoritarian, nationalist, and quasi-westernized states, and the character cult of the chief.
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Extra info for Men of Order: Authoritarian Modernization Under Ataturk and Reza Shah
The attack on the religious community, especially the enforced changing of men’s hats to the European bowler hat, and the enforced prohibition of not only the chador, but also scarves, aroused very strong feelings among the public. 41 Until the late 1930s it was strictly a matter of social propriety for all men, regardless of rank and class, to cover their heads in public, as well as indoors on formal occasions. At the beginning of Reza Shah’s rule a hat fashioned after his own military cap (which had been adapted from the French military kepi and police cap) became in vogue among politicians and state ofﬁcials, and was compulsory among military ofﬁcers.
Many women simply stopped going out of their homes, only once a week going out covertly to go to the public bath through the connected ﬂat roofs of the houses in most Tehran districts at the time. 43 Literary and cultural progress, which had begun before the Constitutional Revolution and had continued since through the works of STATE AND SOCIETY UNDER REZA SHAH 35 poets such as Bahar, Iraj, Aref and Eshqi, prose and ﬁction writers like Dehkhuda, Jamalzadeh, San‘ati-zadeh and Moshfeq Kazemi, and scholars such as Qazvini, the Forughi brothers (Mohammad Ali and Abolhasan), Tonokaboni and Taqavi, was further stimulated – especially among the young modern elite – by the stability and optimism of the mid-1920s.
Others, such as Ayatollh-zadeh-ye Khorasani, Ayatollahzadeh-ye Shirazi, the Imam Jom‘eh of Shiraz and Sayyed Abolqasem Kashani attended more regularly, and most of them were present at the time of voting. Kashani was quite active in the discussions. Leading and inﬂuential merchants were also present. They included Hajj Mohammad Hossein Amin al-Zarb and Hajj Mohammad Taqi Bonakdar, who had played such important roles in the Constitutional Revolution. Apart from Solaiman Mirza, there were other old radical Democrats in the Assembly.