By Murray E. Fowler
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Extra info for Medicine and Surgery of Camelids, 3rd Edition
The Camel—Its Evolution, Ecology, Behavior and Relationship to Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , ed. 1986. The Camel in Health and Disease, London: Bailliere Tindal. E. 1995. The Alpaca Book, Herald, California: Clay Press. H. 1996. Camels—A Compendium. Series C, No. G. Hungerford Vade Mecum Series for Domestic Animals. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney Post Graduate Foundation in Veterinary Science. , eds. 1992. The One-humped Camel in Eastern Africa. Weikersheim, Germany: Verlag Josef Margraf.
Nonetheless, in the neonate camelid, milk is shunted past C-1 into C-2 and then into C-3. In a study by Vallenas,115,116,118 the response to chemical stimulation was more like that of a bovine than of an ovine. 116,118 In the alpaca neonate, the plasma glucose level was 121 mg/dl, whereas in the adult alpaca it is 72 to 99 mg/dl. In the bovine, it is generally believed that all carbohydrates are acted upon by ruminal microorganisms and converted to volatile fatty acids. This requires a functional rumen.
11 A previous study of maintenance energy was reported by Schneider et al. 75 103 MEm BWkg . 75 71 × BWkg = kcal digestible energy (DE). The difference between these studies may be a difference in the method of extrapolation to zero energy retention for estimating metabolizable energy for maintenance or a difference in the quality of the diets fed during the studies. The range may be expected because the ME for maintenance for sheep is 72 to 107 kcal. Cattle have a higher ME value (110 kcal). 5 value as a more accurate estimation for NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF CAMELIDS6,72,76 The nutrient requirements of camelids are similar.